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Protein synthesis - Biology-Online Dictionary
The genetic material making up genes is composed of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). DNA has several properties that enable it to function as genetic material; it is able to (1) direct the synthesis of copies of itself (replicate itself), (2) store information that directs protein synthesis, and (3) direct the synthesis of structural and regulatory proteins. DNA is composed of nucleic acids. Therefore, appreciation of the structure of nucleic acids and DNA, and the process of protein synthesis are essential prerequisites to the understanding of control of cellular activity, drug action, and various disease processes.
The purpose of this exercise is to become familiar with the structure of nucleic acids, DNA, RNA and to reinforce the role of DNA and RNA in the process of protein synthesis.
Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Quiz - zeroBio
Specifically what is the genetic code? (You may wish to postpone answering this question until after you have finished the section on Protein Synthesis)
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a mature, copy of a gene that describes the exact sequence in which amino acids should be bonded together to form a protein. Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules are responsible for picking up particular amino acids and transferring them to the ribosomes for assembly into polypeptides. Each tRNA molecule contains a triplet nucleotide sequence that can base-pair with a codon on the mRNA. This triplet nucleotide sequence on tRNA that is complementary to the codon of mRNA is called an anticodon. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is used in the manufacture of ribosomes where mRNA and tRNA come together in the synthesis of proteins.
Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Protein Synthesis 1
This begins with DNA in the nucleus and ends with the final protein in the cytoplasm.
To do this we need to be able to read the genetic code just as tRNA can.
A ribonucleoprotein is a structure consisting of protein and RNA (ribonucleic acid).
In prokaryotes, the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleoid is rich in risosomes (and is called the riboplasm) - in bacteria proteins that
make up the ribosome are the most abundant proteins in the cytosol.
In eukaryotes ribosomes can exist free in the cytosol or bound to endoplasmic reticulum (forming rough endoplasmic reticulum, or
RER, so-called because the ribosomes stud its outer/cytosolic surface).
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nucleic acids & protein synthesis notes b1 - Biology …
The cytosol has a high gluathione concentration, which
makes it a reducing environment, and so proteins with disulphide bridges (-S-S-) can not be made here (since the disulphide bridge
would remain reduced to hydrogen sulphide groups (-SH + HS-).
SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Protein Synthesis
Nucleic acids are composed of subunits called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a sugar molecule containing five carbon atoms, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. For DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) the sugar is deoxyribose and the nitrogenous bases are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine. For RNA (ribonucleic acid) the sugar is ribose and the nitrogenous bases are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil.
DNA and Protein Synthesis - BioTopics Website
At this point translation stops, the ribosome detaches from the mRNA and
disassembles and the polypetide chain is released (either to the cytosol or to the lumen of the RER).
Ribosomes - Protein Synthesis - Cronodon
DNA transcription is the process of making a single strand complementary RNA copy of DNA. Data is copied from the DNA to the RNA with the aid of the enzyme RNA polymerase. Using this process, the genetic information stored in the DNA is carried in the form of RNA to other parts of the cell. In eukaryotic cells a gene begins with a promoter region and an initiation code and ends with a termination code. However, the intervening gene sequence contains patches of nucleotides that have no meaning. If they were used in protein synthesis, the resulting proteins would be worthless. Eukaryotic cells prune these segments from the mRNA after transcription. RNA polmerase synthesizes a strand of pre-mRNA that initially includes copies of the meaningful mRNA coding sequences (exons) and the meaningless mRNA coding sequences (introns). Soon after its manufacture, this pre-mRNA molecule has the meaningless introns clipped out and the exons spliced together in the final version of mature mRNA
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