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T1 - Inhibition of DNA synthesis by RB

Furthermore, the 2 antibiotics in Plasmocin™ act on separate targets blocking protein synthesis and DNA replication, whereas the 2 antibiotics in BM-Cyclin are both inhibitors of protein synthesis.

an Buy Gemcitabine | DNA/RNA Synthesis inhibitor | …

N2 - Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of cyclin D1 function results in cell cycle arrest, whereas unregulated expression of the protein accelerates G1. Cyclin D1 is localized to the nucleus during G1. We found that during repair DNA synthesis, subsequent to UV-induced DNA damage, G1 cells readily lost their cyclin D1 while the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) tightly associated with nuclear structures. Microinjection of cyclin D1 antisense accelerated DNA repair, whereas overexpression of cyclin D1 prevented DNA repair and the relocation of PCNA after DNA damage. Coexpression of cyclin D1 with its primary catalytic subunit, Cdk4, or with Cdk2, also prevented repair. In contrast, coexpression of PCNA, which is also a cyclin D1-associated protein, restored the ability of cells to repair their DNA. Acute overexpression of cyclin D1 in fibroblasts prevented them from entering S phase. Again, these effects were abolished by coexpression of cyclin D1 together with PCNA, but not with Cdk4 or Cdk2. Altogether, these results indicate that down- regulation of cyclin D1 is necessary for PCNA relocation and repair DNA synthesis as well as for the start of DNA replication. Cyclin D1 appears to be an essential component of a G1-checkpoint.

We found that during repair DNA synthesis, ..

KW - DNA repair

Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of cyclin D1 function results in cell cycle arrest, whereas unregulated expression of the protein accelerates G1. Cyclin D1 is localized to the nucleus during G1. We found that during repair DNA synthesis, subsequent to UV-induced DNA damage, G1 cells readily lost their cyclin D1 while the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) tightly associated with nuclear structures. Microinjection of cyclin D1 antisense accelerated DNA repair, whereas overexpression of cyclin D1 prevented DNA repair and the relocation of PCNA after DNA damage. Coexpression of cyclin D1 with its primary catalytic subunit, Cdk4, or with Cdk2, also prevented repair. In contrast, coexpression of PCNA, which is also a cyclin D1-associated protein, restored the ability of cells to repair their DNA. Acute overexpression of cyclin D1 in fibroblasts prevented them from entering S phase. Again, these effects were abolished by coexpression of cyclin D1 together with PCNA, but not with Cdk4 or Cdk2. Altogether, these results indicate that down- regulation of cyclin D1 is necessary for PCNA relocation and repair DNA synthesis as well as for the start of DNA replication. Cyclin D1 appears to be an essential component of a G1-checkpoint.

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, RB, is a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Growth inhibitory activity of RB is attenuated by phosphorylation. Mutation of a combination of phosphorylation sites leads to a constitutively active RB. In Rat-1 cells, the phosphorylation-site-mutated (PSM)-RB, but not wild-type RB, can inhibit S-phase entry. In PSM-RB-arrested G1 cells, normal levels of cyclin E and cyclin E-associated kinase activity were detected, but the expression of cyclin A was inhibited. The ectopic expression of cyclin E restored cyclin A expression and drove the PSM-RB expressing cells into S phase. Interestingly, Rat-1 cells coexpressing cyclin E and PSM-RB could not complete DNA replication. Microinjection of cells that have passed through the G1 restriction point with plasmids expressing PSM- RB also led to the inhibition of DNA synthesis. The S-phase inhibitory activity of PSM-RB could be attenuated by the coinjection of SV40 T-antigen, adenovirus E1A, or a high level of E2F-1 expression plasmids. However, the S- phase inhibitory activity of PSM-RB could not be overcome by the coinjection of cyclin E or cyclin A expression plasmids. These results reveal a novel role for RB in the inhibition of S-phase progression that is distinct from the inhibition of the G1/S transition, and suggest that continued phosphorylation of RB beyond G1/S is required for the completion of DNA replication.

Inhibition of DNA synthesis by downregulation of cyclin …

KW - DNA replication

Cyclins play a fundamental role in regulating cell cycle events in all eukaryotic cells. The human cyclin A gene was identified as the site of integration of hepatitis B virus in a hepatocarcinoma cell line; in addition, cyclin A is associated with the E2F transcription factor in a complex which is dissociated by the E1A oncogene product. Such findings suggest that cyclin A is a target for oncogenic signals. We have now found that DNA synthesis and entry into mitosis are inhibited in human cells micro-injected with anti-cyclin A antibodies at distinct times. Cyclin A binds both cdk2 and cdc2, giving two distinct cyclin A kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2. These results suggest that cyclin A defines novel control points of the human cell cycle.

AB - Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of cyclin D1 function results in cell cycle arrest, whereas unregulated expression of the protein accelerates G1. Cyclin D1 is localized to the nucleus during G1. We found that during repair DNA synthesis, subsequent to UV-induced DNA damage, G1 cells readily lost their cyclin D1 while the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) tightly associated with nuclear structures. Microinjection of cyclin D1 antisense accelerated DNA repair, whereas overexpression of cyclin D1 prevented DNA repair and the relocation of PCNA after DNA damage. Coexpression of cyclin D1 with its primary catalytic subunit, Cdk4, or with Cdk2, also prevented repair. In contrast, coexpression of PCNA, which is also a cyclin D1-associated protein, restored the ability of cells to repair their DNA. Acute overexpression of cyclin D1 in fibroblasts prevented them from entering S phase. Again, these effects were abolished by coexpression of cyclin D1 together with PCNA, but not with Cdk4 or Cdk2. Altogether, these results indicate that down- regulation of cyclin D1 is necessary for PCNA relocation and repair DNA synthesis as well as for the start of DNA replication. Cyclin D1 appears to be an essential component of a G1-checkpoint.

Three classes of antibiotics have been shown to kill mycoplasma at relatively low concentrations: tetracyclines, macrolides and quinolones.
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Cell cycle‐dependent dynamic association of cyclin…

Unlike BM-Cyclin that requires the sequential and cyclic use of 2 antibiotics, Plasmocin™ is ready-to-use and can be added to the culture medium directly.

Regulation of Cyclin D1 Expression and DNA Synthesis …

Tetracyclines and macrolides block the protein synthesis by interfering with ribosome translation, while quinolones inhibit the replication of bacterial DNA.
Several antibiotics are commercially available for the removal of mycoplasma: BM-cyclin (Roche) contains a macrolide and a tetracycline, Ciprobay (Bayer, available only with a prescription) and MRA (ICN) are both quinolones.

from the cyclin D 1 promoter and DNA synthesis in an ERK ..

Wiebusch, L. and Hagemeier, C. (2001), The human cytomegalovirus immediate early 2 protein dissociates cellular DNA synthesis from cyclin-dependent kinase activation. The EMBO Journal, 20: 1086–1098. doi: 10.1093/emboj/20.5.1086

Buscar Dna Synthesis Obter resultados em 6 Motores à vez

AB - The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, RB, is a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Growth inhibitory activity of RB is attenuated by phosphorylation. Mutation of a combination of phosphorylation sites leads to a constitutively active RB. In Rat-1 cells, the phosphorylation-site-mutated (PSM)-RB, but not wild-type RB, can inhibit S-phase entry. In PSM-RB-arrested G1 cells, normal levels of cyclin E and cyclin E-associated kinase activity were detected, but the expression of cyclin A was inhibited. The ectopic expression of cyclin E restored cyclin A expression and drove the PSM-RB expressing cells into S phase. Interestingly, Rat-1 cells coexpressing cyclin E and PSM-RB could not complete DNA replication. Microinjection of cells that have passed through the G1 restriction point with plasmids expressing PSM- RB also led to the inhibition of DNA synthesis. The S-phase inhibitory activity of PSM-RB could be attenuated by the coinjection of SV40 T-antigen, adenovirus E1A, or a high level of E2F-1 expression plasmids. However, the S- phase inhibitory activity of PSM-RB could not be overcome by the coinjection of cyclin E or cyclin A expression plasmids. These results reveal a novel role for RB in the inhibition of S-phase progression that is distinct from the inhibition of the G1/S transition, and suggest that continued phosphorylation of RB beyond G1/S is required for the completion of DNA replication.

The Cell cycle - Oregon State University

AB - Cyclins play a fundamental role in regulating cell cycle events in all eukaryotic cells. The human cyclin A gene was identified as the site of integration of hepatitis B virus in a hepatocarcinoma cell line; in addition, cyclin A is associated with the E2F transcription factor in a complex which is dissociated by the E1A oncogene product. Such findings suggest that cyclin A is a target for oncogenic signals. We have now found that DNA synthesis and entry into mitosis are inhibited in human cells micro-injected with anti-cyclin A antibodies at distinct times. Cyclin A binds both cdk2 and cdc2, giving two distinct cyclin A kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2. These results suggest that cyclin A defines novel control points of the human cell cycle.

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