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12. A "culture of poverty" - I. Q. connection:
His thesis is that the culture of each group persisted (albeit in modified form), providing the basis for the modern United States.
According to Fischer, the foundation of America's four regional cultures was formed from four mass migrations from four different regions of the British Isles by four distinct ethno-cultural groups.
Cummins (2001) is the researcher most closely associated with the theory that use of the mother tongue can support second language acquisition and the learning of subject content. Cummins postulates the existence of a common underlying proficiency (CUP), so that knowledge, understanding and skills acquired in language 1 are available for use in language 2. As Cummins states: "Conceptual knowledge developed in one language helps to make input in the other language comprehensible." For example, if a child learns the concepts of "justice" or "honesty" in her own language, all she has to do is acquire the label for these terms in English. She has a far more difficult task, however, if she has to acquire both the label and the concept in her second language.
17. More "culture of poverty stuff":
With functionalism (Durkheim, Parsons), students should be aware of the analogy of society to an organism, the assumption of consensus that underlies social life, and ways that society organizes itself to sanction deviance so that it may return to equilibrium. Students should also be aware of the criticisms of functionalism regarding its difficulty in dealing with social change.
This leads to uncertainty over the real meaning of the figures: For instance, as can be seen, according to these figures, the Euro-American population dropped 40 million in ten years, but in fact this is a reflection of changing census responses.
Alternatives to the Official Poverty Rate
The last element of culture is the , or material objects, that constitute a society’s material culture. In the simplest societies, artifacts are largely limited to a few tools, the huts people live in, and the clothing they wear. One of the most important inventions in the evolution of society was the wheel. shows that very few of the societies in the SCCS use wheels to move heavy loads over land, while the majority use human power and about one-third use pack animals.
While these characteristics (see below) are certainly present in poverty populations,Culture of Poverty Theory leaves the impression that they typify all poor people. THAT IS A FALLACY!
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Deficiency Theory #2:Cultural Inferiority - The Culture of Poverty
A similar intellectual divide characterizes the ongoing debateabout the prospects of democratic institutions at the global level. Ina cosmopolitan mode, David Held (1995) argues that globalizationrequires the extension of liberal democratic institutions (includingthe rule of law and elected representative institutions) to thetransnational level. Nation state-based liberal democracy is poorlyequipped to deal with deleterious side effects of present-dayglobalization such as ozone depletion or burgeoning materialinequality. In addition, a growing array of genuinely transnationalforms of activity calls out for no less intrinsically transnationalmodes of liberal democratic decision-making. According to this model,“local” or “national” matters should remainunder the auspices of existing liberal democratic institutions. But inthose areas where deterritorialization and social interconnectednessacross national borders are especially striking, new transnationalinstitutions (for example, cross-border referenda), along with adramatic strengthening and further democratization of existing formsof supranational authority (in particular, the United Nations), arenecessary if we are to assure that popular sovereignty remains aneffective principle. In the same spirit, Jürgen Habermas hastried to formulate a defense of the European Union that conceives ofit as a key steppingstone towards supranational democracy. If the EUis to help succeed in salvaging the principle of popular sovereigntyin a world where the decay of nation state-based democracy makesdemocracy vulnerable, the EU will need to strengthen its electedrepresentative organs and better guarantee the civil, political, andsocial and economic rights of all Europeans (Habermas 2001, 58-113;2009). Representing a novel form of postnational constitutionalism, itpotentially offers some broader lessons for those hoping to savedemocratic constitutionalism under novel global conditions (Habermas2012).
Characteristics of the Culture of Poverty
tional culture hypothesis using survey data, but we disagree with their conclusions. Our results show that it is premature to reject op- positional culture as one of the possible mechanisms influencing lower school per- formance among ethnic minority and low- income students.
A Critique of the Moynihan Report and the Culture of Poverty
Cross-cultural evidence supports the importance of the work ethic in the United States. Using earlier World Values Survey data, presents the percentage of people in the United States and three other nations from different parts of the world—Argentina, Poland, and Japan—who take “a great deal of pride” in their work. Almost 88% of Americans feel this way, compared to much lower proportions of people in the other three nations.
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