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Further research identifies the Cultural Discontinuity hypothesis ..
offers a new Cultural Discontinuity Theory which is expanded to include the student's social economic status rather than just the ethnic background of the student.
To sum up, culture may well be defined as "a symptom revealing what is human." This is to underline that it is humankind's attitude towards culture -their "capacity for projectuality and symbolism"- which reveals human specificity more than diverse cultural expressions, which might vary with time also due to environmental changes. However varied human production may be, it always show projectuality and symbolism as the standard features of culture. From an anthropological point of view, it is this cultural capacity, dynamic and in a continual evolution, which reveals what is human. As a consequence, the real nature of human beings, their most unknown side, are disclosed in the ever-lasting progress of cultural expressions. This behavior transcends the purely physical-biological side of the question to offer a philosophical connection and be interpreted as an expression of a "spirituality" showing an "ontological discontinuity" vis-à-vis the animal world (see below, IV; V.3).
there may be less cultural discontinuity over 9,000 ..
I. Introduction - II. The Phases of the Evolution of Human Beings. 1. Basic Scientific Data and Methodology . 2. The Oldest Hominids: the Australopithecines . 3. Forms of Homo Habilis . 4. The Homo Erectus . 5. The Appearance of Homo Sapiens . - III. Culture revelas what is Human in Humans. 1. Biological Novelties and Cultural Discontinuity . 2. Evidence for Projectuality and Symbolism . 3. The Problem of the Human Threshold and the Origin of Culture. - IV. The Emergence of " Homo Religiosus " . 1. Different Approaches to the Issue of Human Religiousness . 2. Symbolic Activity, Spiritual Sense and Religious Sense . 3. The Burials of Primitive Men . 4. Art and Religion in the Paleolithic Era . - V. The Origin of Human Beings, Theories of Evolution and Biblical Revelation. 1. Creation and Evolution . 2. God's Project for Creation: Finality or Chance? 3. The Appearance of the Human Being and its Spiritual Dimension.
We have been looking approaches that try to chart the life-course via stages or phases – as Tennant and Pogson put it, ‘periods of stability, equilibrium and balance that alternate, in a largely predictable way with periods of instability and transition’. As an alternative we can look to those theorists that stress the large differences in the way that life courses are made. One way of looking at this is look at the disruptive impact of life events or transitions (defined as a discontinuity in a person’s life) and the scale of readjustment required. For example, the Holmes and Rahe scale has 43 items (Hopson 1981: 142-144). At the top come:
Only by developing models of what cultural discontinuity might be ..
Unfortunately, this Cultural Discontinuity is experienced as conflict and results in reduced academic performance, behaviour that brings students into problems with teachers and the leaving of school.
The idea of "hierophany" advanced by Mircea Elide, to which Julien Ries resorted to, is both a plausible and, undoubtedly, an efficient means to describe how the sense of sacredness developed in prehistoric men. This idea should be applied to all the stages of the human evolution since its origins, which means it is as valid for Homo habilis as for the Homo erectus species living during Lower Paleolithic, when a certain symbolic activity was detected involving expressions of culture or magical-religious practices. The cultural and somatic continuity observed between habilis and erectus suggests a conceptual level common to both species, whatever its expressions may be. Therefore, human beings can be regarded as sapiens already at the faber stage thanks to technology. To tell the truth, we have already explained that they were faber because they were sapiens , since their origins, and that was because their being sapiens kindled the spark of self-consciousness and symbolic capacity inspiring the sense of religiousness and sacredness.
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Profantova - Cultural Discontinuity & the Migration Hypothesis
Finally, there is another symbolic system, in which communicating means expressing the intimate thoughts of people without any particular reference to events or needs. Arts, religion, and ethics, for example, allow us to "transcend" both the spheres of biology and social communications. There may be some expressions referring to biological and social life but, in those spheres, we are completely independent and able to transcend any biological and social needs. This is why this kind of symbolism is known as "spiritual symbolism" (see below, IV.2). Deacon (1997) was right when he defined humankind as a "symbolic species." Being at the very core of culture, like two faces of the same medal, projectuality and symbolism should be considered as one, single entity, expressing human abstract intelligence and psychism. Moreover, because they are creative expressions, they may develop and improve their results, spreading through society by extraparental transmission. By accepting as true this definition of culture, we might as well point out that culture is peculiar to human beings. Therefore, it is definitely incorrect to attribute it to animals, indicating it as any behavior acquired either by imitation or by casual learning, and never through biological inheritance. Nevertheless, this position is currently shared by many authors, including Cavalli Sforza and Feldman (1981).
Novelties and Cultural Discontinuity
"Symbolism" is another essential characteristic of culture. It is the capacity to attribute to a sign, a sound or an object a meaning or a value going beyond the sign itself (for example, when a scream is the consequence of pain it is a sign, not a symbol). Furthermore, symbolism adds value to the results of technology. Projectuality is linked to symbolism. The results of technology are the final outcome of a plan and become a sign, a reminder of the uses we could make of it. The value of tools, on the contrary, is inherent in their being tools and thus in their reflecting the use they are intended for. To sum up, "functional symbolism" is observed when both tools and the technology used to produce them find their meaning in the objects themselves, for they reflect exactly whatever peculiar or general use or function stemming from the maker's intention (e.g. cutting or scraping) in the observer's mind. This is how the tools and products of human activities can enter human imagination and are attributed a special meaning in their life context.
The Paleolithic Continuity Paradigm - Introduction
There is also strong research that focuses on Cultural Discontinuity which states that culturally based differences in the communication styles between the minority students' home and the predominate Anglo culture of the school is a factor for dropout.
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