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Critical period hypothesis - Wikipedia
Could these remarkable responsive patterns of DID-patients be a result of suggestion? Pending tests with DID-simulating controls, it should be noted that 80% or more of DID-patients have PTSD (Boon & Draijer, 1993; Darves-Bornoz, 1997; Darves-Bornoz, Pierre, Lépine, Degiovanni, & Gaillard, 1998), and that dissimulating and simulating PTSD is difficult (Gerardi et al., 1989; Orr & Pitman, 1993). When subjects with PTSD were instructed to alter their psychophysiological responses to combat stimuli, they were unable to do so, and although subjects without PTSD were able to increase certain psychophysiological responses to appear more like the PTSD veterans, large differences between PTSD and non-PTSD subjects remained (Gerardi et al., 1989). Thus, if one argued that the ANP and EP in DID result from suggestion, and do not reflect genuine dissociative parts of the personality, one still would have to explain a range of important phenomena. First, why is there comorbid PTSD in these patients? Why does the DID patientis EP have more pronounced psychophysiological responses to trauma-cues compared to the magnitude of response in PTSD patients? What is the explanation of positive (dissociative) PTSD symptomatology in DID that depends on the part of the personality that is dominant at a given moment, such as intrusions, and psychophysiological responses to trauma-cues? And if one does not accept the concept of functioning that is dependent on the activated part of the personality, how does one explain the ability of DID patients to periodically dissimulate their PTSD, a feat that PTSD patients without DID cannot perform? Currently, it is tested whether ANP and EP simulating healthy women have different psychophysiological reactions to neutral and aversive autobiographical memories (Reinders et al, in progress). The preliminary results suggest that these differences do not exist.
Persistence of structural dissociation is an essential feature of trauma-related disorders that range from PTSD to DID. Since living organisms have a natural tendency toward differentiation and integration (Siegel, 1999), we must ask what maintains dissociation when trauma has ceased. In our theoretical view, integrative failure in the aftermath of trauma partly involves effects of Pavlovian, or classical, conditioning, a hypothesis we have begun to explore in quasi-experimental research.
What Is the Critical Period Hypothesis? (with picture)
Although little is known about the development of integrative connections among action systems, it is in interaction with caretakers that young children begin to acquire skills to sustain, modulate, and integrate behavioral states (Putnam, 1997). As Putnam suggested: "Modulation of affective behavioral states is a critical aspect of emotion regulation, as well as social behavior." (p. 161) This modulation can be strongly promoted by the sharing of parallel or complementary states between the child and her caretakers. Although this social sharing is associated with powerful synchronizations of physiological processes between the child and the adult that assist the child in regulating states, lack of synchronization has disruptive effects (Field, 1985). "Good enough" parenting includes adaptation to the childis states, tolerance of the childis states within nurturing limits, soothing distress, and planning cycles of activity and rest for the child. Such caretaking activities critically enhance differentiation and integration of states in the child (Putnam, 1997).
The integrative capacity of children is also limited because of a relative absence of experience-derived templates that are helpful as "attractors" (Siegel, 1999) to integrate new and/or emotionally charged experiences. Thus (young) children would seem to be dependent on their social environment for regulation of the commands of instinctual action systems, and prone to integrative failure. In support of this hypothesis, Ogawa et al. (1997) found that dissociation in early childhood was a normative response to disruption and stress, whereas persistent dissociation in adolescence and young adulthood was indicative of psychopathology.
The Critical Period for Language Acquisition and Feral Children
Research and clinical observations support the hypothesis that traumatic memories strongly involve sensorimotor features. For example, Van der Kolk and Fisler (1995) found that traumatic memories of subjects with PTSD were retrieved, at least initially, in the form of dissociated mental imprints of sensory and affective elements of the traumatic experience with little or no linguistic component. Sexually abused children also "remembered" their traumas in the form of sensory perceptions, and behavioral responses (Burgess, Hartman, & Baker, 1995), as did women reporting childhood sexual abuse (Nijenhuis, Van Engen et al., 2001) and trauma-reporting EPs of patients with DID (Nijenhuis, Quak et al., 1999).
In these experiments I used different forms of thinking, including critical and creative thinking, in order to form a hypothesis, analyze the data, and then come to a conclusion regarding results and my hypothesis.
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theory, the critical period hypothesis ..
Scientists recently succeeded in extracting DNA from several Neanderthal skeletons.8 After careful analysis of particularly the mtDNA, but now also some nuclear DNA, it is apparent that Neanderthal DNA is very distinct from our own. In assessing the degree of difference between DNA in Neanderthals and modern humans, the authors suggest that these two lineages have been separated for more than 400,000 years.
The critical period hypothesis is ..
A hypothesis starts out with a researcher having initial hunches with he/she attempting to answer a specific research question. Watson (n.d. cited Bryman and Bell, 2011) and Newby, 2010 defines a hypothesis as a testing of the possible relationship between two or more variables in […]
the critical period for native ..
A hypothesis, defined by Bryman and Bell (2011) is “an informed speculation, which is set up to be tested, about the possible relationship between two more variables”. It is frequently deduced from the theory and is tested (Ibid). When a hypothesis is suggested, statistics are […]
after the end of the critical period
The high degree of similarity between human populations stands in strong contrast to the condition seen in our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees.2 In fact, there is significantly more genetic variation between two individual chimpanzees drawn from the same population than there is between two humans drawn randomly from a single population. Furthermore, genetic variation between populations of chimpanzees is enormously greater than differences between European, Asian and African human populations.
Case Study of Genie - Critical Period Hypothesis
Educator Diane Halpern’s definition, “Critical thinking is the use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a positive outcome.” Critical thinking is used to describe thinking that is purposeful, reasoned, and is goal directed - the kind of thinking involved in problem solving, formulating inferences, calculating l...
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