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Anaerobic Respiration (Fermentation):

Cryptococcosis caused by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans affects mostly immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent neurological complication in AIDS patients. Recent studies support the idea that intracellular survival Cryptococcus yeast cells is important its pathogenesis. However, the initial steps of Cryptococcus internalization by host cells remain poorly understood.

CellularRespiration: breaking down sugar in the presence of oxygen(aerobic).

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PRACTICE QUESTION #5
What are the two substances that may be formed in anaerobic respiration?
CORRECT ANSWERS #1-5
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A comparison between Photosynthesis and Respiration:

Between photosynthesis and cellular respiration there is what is called an inverse relationship.

The earliest cells, prokaryotes living in an early Earth devoid of free oxygen, used various alternative electron acceptors to carry on anaerobic cellular respiration. After cyanobacteria invented oxygenic photosynthesis and pumped oxygen gas into the oceans and atmosphere, bacteria that adapted their electron transport chains to exploit oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor gained higher energy yield and thus a competitive advantage. One line of aerobic bacteria took up an endosymbiotic relationship within a larger host cell, providing ATP in exchange for organic molecules. The endosymbiont was the evolutionary ancestor of mitochondria. This endosymbiosis must have occurred in the ancestor of all eukaryotes, because all existing eukaryotes have mitochondria (Martin and Mentel, 2010). The evidence for the endosymbiont origin of mitochondria can be found in:

Cellular energy metabolism features a series of redox reactions. Heterotrophs oxidize (take electrons from) organic molecules (food) and reduce (give them to) an electron carrier molecule, called NAD+ (in the oxidized form) that accepts electrons from food to become NADH (the reduced form). NADH then cycles back to NAD+ by giving electrons to (reducing) the first complex of the membrane electron transport chain. Thus NAD+/NADH is a key intermediary in shuttling electrons from food molecules to the electrons transport chain for respiration.

Be able to write the overall equation forCellular respiration.

Be able to describe what anaerobic respiration is and what types of products result in


Energy is defined as the ability to do work. The cells of all organisms, and therefore, all organisms, require a continuous supply of energy for the performance of their daily, vital activities. Carbohydrates, especially glucose, generally provide this energy through the process of respiration. Simply stated, respiration is the release of energy from energy-storing compounds. It is represented by the chemical equation:

You should be careful to notice that the process of cellular respiration is essentially the reverse of photosynthesis. The catabolic breakdown (burning) of glucose requires the presence of oxygen and yields energy and . This process is generally the same when any organic molecule is respired (or burned) whether it is glucose in a living animal or plant cell, wood in a fire, or gasoline in a car. The breakdown of any energy storing chemical releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct, which may then be used by plants in the photosynthetic process.

Anaerobic respiration in bacteria
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Anaerobic respiration in bacteria

Energy Transformation: Both Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis need to transform energy into different forms in order for their reactions to initially take place and continue onward.

Generalized explanation of aerobic and anaerobic respiration:

Photosynthesis uses those products from cellular respiration as its reactants and in turn produces glucose and oxygen- the reactants needed for cellular respiration.

Generalized explanation of aerobic and anaerobic respiration:

The earliest cells, prokaryotes living in an early Earth devoid of free oxygen, used various alternative electron acceptors to carry on anaerobic cellular respiration. After cyanobacteria invented oxygenic photosynthesis and pumped oxygen gas into the oceans and atmosphere, bacteria that adapted their electron transport chains to exploit oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor gained higher energy yield and thus a competitive advantage. One line of aerobic bacteria took up an endosymbiotic relationship within a larger host cell, providing ATP in exchange for organic molecules. The endosymbiont was the evolutionary ancestor of mitochondria. This endosymbiosis must have occurred in the ancestor of all eukaryotes, because all existing eukaryotes have mitochondria (Martin and Mentel, 2010). The evidence for the endosymbiont origin of mitochondria can be found in:

For cellular respiration this gas is O2.

Cellular energy metabolism features a series of redox reactions. Heterotrophs oxidize(take electrons from) organic molecules (food) and reduce (give them to) an electron carrier molecule, called NAD+ (in the oxidized form) that accepts electrons from food to become NADH (the reduced form). NADH then cycles back to NAD+ by giving electrons to (reducing) the first complex of the membrane electron transport chain. Thus NAD+/NADH is a key intermediary in shuttling electrons from food molecules to the electrons transport chain for respiration.

Cellular respiration on the other hand has no requirement for light.

Many bacteria can use other terminal electron acceptors when oxygen is unavailable; we say that they carry on anaerobic respiration, when the electron transport chain functions in the absence of oxygen, using an alternative terminal electron acceptor.

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