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Laboratory Automation with Parallel Synthesis.
Screening libraries, natural compound derivatives and further rare chemicals are produced by state-of-the-art chemistry methods. The compound libraries are developed and synthesized by applying defined parallel syntheses from combinatorial chemistry methods.
R.; Lober, S.; Hubner, H.; Gmeiner, P., Click chemistry on solid phase: parallel synthesis of -benzyltriazole carboxamides as super-potent G-protein coupled receptor ligands.
Methods of Combinatorial Chemistry
Abstract: Investigation on overconstrained mechanisms needs attention especially in thestructural synthesis. Knowing overconstrained conditions and including them in thedesign process will help creating manipulators with less degree of freedom (DoF) and more rigidity. Also this knowledge of overconstrained conditions will clarify concept of mobility of the parallel manipulators. Another subject, kinematic synthesis of overconstrained mechanisms, is important because it will allow describing a function,path, or motion with less DoF less number of joints. The aim of this thesis is to describe a generalized approach for structural synthesis and creation of new overconstrained manipulators and to describe a potentially generalizable approach for function andmotion generation synthesis of overconstrained mechanism. Moreover, screw theory is investigated as a mathematical base for defining kinematics of overconstrained mechanisms. Also, overconstrained mechanisms are investigated and generation of new mechanisms is introduced with examples. Some mathematical models for the subspace geometries are given. A method for defining overconstrained simple structural groups is introduced and extended to design of manipulators with examples and solid drawings. Linear approximation and least squares approximation methods are used for the function generation and motion generation of overconstrained 6R mechanisms. A gap of describing overconstrained manipulators is filled in the area of structural synthesis. A general methodology is described for structural synthesis, mobility and motion calculations of overconstrained manipulators using simple structural groups. A potentially generalizable method for the kinematic synthesis of overconstrained manipulators is described both for function and motion generation.
In the following sections, strategies for epitope location and characterization on protein antigens will be outlined. Clearly, there are two prime requisites before epitopes can be mapped using synthetic peptides:
1. The amino acid sequence of at least part of the protein antigen must be known. Sequences are available for a vast number of antigens due to the sequencing of cloned genes, and for some antigens via protein sequencing.
2. A defined antibody population with specificity for that antigen must be available. The cleanest examples of such antibody populations are monoclonal antibodies (MAb's). "Polyclonal" antisera can be used, particularly if they are from animals/subjects hyperimmune to the particular antigen in question. Other antibody preparations worthy of study include: affinity-purified fractions from sera, sera depleted of particular (unwanted) antibody specificities, and defined (classified) sets of sera from unimmunized subjects. These defined sets of sera can be identified in a conventional serological test, and can be used to establish a correlation between positives in that serological test and binding to peptide epitope(s). Control antibody preparations should always be studied in parallel wherever possible.
The first and simplest approach to defining linear epitopes of a protein antigen is referred to simply as "scanning" 6. This scanning strategy has two distinct phases. The first phase allows location of the area of the sequence in which an epitope is to be found. The second phase defines the limits or boundaries of each epitope at a resolution of a single amino acid, i.e. indicates which parts of an antibody-binding peptide are "inside" and "outside" the epitope.
What is Combinatorial Chemistry
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