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chloroplast - organelle in a plant cell where photosynthesis occurs.
Proteins must be transported to the correct organelles of a cell and folded into correct 3-D structures to properly perform their functions. Therefore, knowing the subcellular localization is one step towards understanding its functions. Proteins can exist in different locations within a cell, and some proteins can even simultaneously reside at, or move between, two or more different subcellular locations. As an essential and indispensable topic in proteomics research and molecular cell biology, protein subcellular localization is critically important for protein function annotation, drug target discovery, and drug design. Efficient and reliable computational methods are developed to assist the biological experiments such as fluorescent microscopy imaging. Proteins with multiple locations play important roles in some metabolic processes taking place in more than one compartment.
The mesophyll contains cells called chloroplasts, which convert sunlight into a stable chemical A: The photosynthetic tissue of a leaf is the palisade parenchyma, the upper layer of the A: Photosynthesis does not occur during the night.A secondary school revision resource for OCR Gateway GCSE Additional Science about the green world and photosynthesis.
But how does chloroplast look like?
For multi-location proteins, mGOASVM, HybridGO-Loc, mPLR-Loc and R3P-Loc is designed to predict 12 subcellular locations of multi-label plant proteins. The 12 subcellular locations include: (1) cell membrane; (2) cell wall; (3) chloroplast; (4) cytoplasm; (5) endoplasmic reticulum; (6) extracellular; (7) golgi apparatus; (8) mitochondrion; (9) nucleus; (10) peroxisome; (11) plastid; and (12) vacuole. Note
For multi-location proteins, R3P-Loc is designed to predict 22 subcellular locations of multi-label eukaryotic proteins. The 22 subcellular locations include: (1) acrosome; (2) cell membrane; (3) cell-wall; (4) centrosome; (5) chloroplast; (6) cyanelle; (7) cytoplasm; (8) cytoskeleton; (9) endoplasmic reticulum; (10) endosome; (11) extracellular; (12) golgi apparatus; (13) hydrogenosome; (14) lysosome; (15) melanosome; (16) microsome; (17) mitochondrion; (18) nucleus; (19) peroxisome; (20) spindle pole body; (21) synapse; and (22) vacuole.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
light reactions (light dependent reactions) - chemical reactions requiring electromagnetic energy (light) that occur in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast to convert light energy into chemical forms ATP and NAPDH.
Most of the biological activities performed by proteins occur in organelles. An organelle is a cellular component or subcellular location within a cell that has specific functions. The figure above illustrates some organelles in a typical eukaryotic cell. In eukaryotic cells, major organelles include cytoplasm, mitochondria, chloroplast, nucleus, extracellular space, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane. Cytoplasm takes up most of the cell volume where most of the cellular activities, such as cell division and metabolic pathways, occur. Mitochondrion is a membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It is mainly responsible for supplying energy for cellular activities. Chloroplast is an organelle existing in plant or algal cells. Its role is to conduct photosynthesis to store energy from sunlight. Nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle containing most of the genetic materials for a cell. Its main function is to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression. Extracellular space refers to the space outside the plasma membrane, which is occupied by fluid. ER is a type of organelle that forms an interconnected membranous network of cistemae which serves the functions of folding protein molecules in cistemae and transporting synthesized proteins to Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus is an organelle which is particularly important in cell secretion. Plasma membrane or cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the intracellular environment from extracellular space. Its basic function is to protect the cell from its surroundings.
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Plants contain two main forms of chlorophyll: a & b. Chlorophyll has a hydrocarbon tail that anchors it to an integral protein in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Chlorophyll is the source of the green color of plants and certain other autotrophs.
The plasma membrane serves as the outer boundary to the animal cell.
Some proteins locate in peroxisome, vacuole, cytoskeleton, nucleoplasm, lysosome, acrosome, cell wall, centrosome, cyanelle, endosome, hydrogenosome, melanosome, microsome, spindle pole body, synapse, etc. For the virus species, viral proteins are usually located within host cells, which are distributed in subcellular locations such as host cytoplasm, host nucleus, host cell membrane, host ER, host nucleus as well as viral capsid.
Animal cells do not have chloroplast.
For single-location proteins, GOASVM is designed to predict 12 subcellular locations of human proteins. The 12 subcellular locations include: (1) centriole; (2) cytoplasm; (3) cytoskeleton; (4) endoplasmic reticulum; (5) extracellular; (6) Golgi apparatus; (7) lysosome; (8) microsome; (9) mitochondrion; (10) nucleus; (11) peroxisome; (12) plasma membrane.
Have a look at some other facts about chloroplast.
chemical equation of photosynthesis - 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Chloroplasts are the center of food synthesis in plants.
For single-location proteins, GOASVM is designed to predict 16 subcellular locations of eukaryotic proteins. The 16 subcellular locations include: (1) cell wall; (2) centriole; (3) chloroplast; (4) cyanelle; (5) cytoplasm; (6) cytoskeleton; (7) endoplasmic reticulum; (8) extracellular; (9) Golgi apparatus; (10) lysosome; (11) mitochondrion; (12) nucleus; (13) peroxisome; (14) plasma membrane; (15) plastid; (16) vacuole. Note
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