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Inhibition of Cell Wall Biosynthesis

Schleifer KH and Kandler O (1972) Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriological Reviews 36: 407–477.

The vast majority of the domain Bacteria have a rigid cell wall composed of peptidoglycan

Penicillin‐binding proteins are responsible for the final stages of peptidoglycan synthesis, but additional proteins modify peptidoglycan in numerous ways in different bacteria.

The first stage of re-synthesis of the cell wall is the ..

Because peptidoglycan is unique to bacteria, the enzymes that synthesise it are some of the most important targets for antibiotic therapy.

This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: Answers_Antibiotic_Modeofaction, macrolides action prevents peptidyltransferase from forming peptide bonds, inhibit synthesis of acid-fast cell walls examples ethambutol, antibiotic/chemical agent inhibits normal nucleic acid replication examples fluoroquinolones, puts nicks in the DNA strands of certain bacteria result blocks the replication of bacterial DNA, binds to 50S ribosomal subunit examples streptogramins, prevents peptidyltransferase from forming peptide bonds ????

inhibits elongation of the protein, antibiotic/chemical agent inhibits normal nucleic acid replication examples metronidazole, binds to 30S ribosomal subunit examples tetracyclines, no glycosidic or peptide bonds form; weak cell wall result osmotic lysis, antibiotics and chemical agents affect bacterial structures or functions.

Cell wall peptidoglycan architecture in Bacillus subtilis.

Vollmer W (2008) Structural variation in the glycan strands of bacterial peptidoglycan. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 32: 287–306.

Litzinger S and Mayer C (2010) The murein sacculus. In: König H, Claus H and Varma A (eds) Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds: Structure and Biochemistry, pp. 3–52. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer.

Archibald AR, Hancock IC and Harwood CR (1993) Cell wall structure, synthesis, and turnover. In: Sonenshein AL, Hoch JA and Losick R (eds) Bacillus subtilis: And Other Gram‐positive Bacteria: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Molecular Genetics, pp. 381–410. Washington, DC: ASM Press.

Barreteau H, Kovac A, Boniface A et al. (2008) Cytoplasmic steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 32: 168–207.
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Peptidoglycan structure and biosynthesis - YouTube

Bacteria can change the composition and perhaps the structure of their peptidoglycan, depending on growth conditions and in response to their environmental surroundings.

Peptidoglycan layer is also the structure of bacterial cell wall

Thus, the genetic code is determined by specific nuleotide basesequences in chromosomal DNA; the amino acid sequence in a proteindetermines the properties and function of the protein; and sequence ofsugars in bacterial lipopolysaccharides determines unique cell wallproperties for pathogens. The primary structure of amacromolecule will drive its function, and differences withinthe primary structure of biological macromoleculesaccounts for the immense diversity of life

28/01/2005 · See also Peptidoglycan Cell wall ..

Cutaway drawing of a typicalbacterial cell illustrating structural components. See Table 2belowfor chemical composition and function of the labeled components.

Antibiotics That Inhibit Bacterial Peptidoglycan Synthesis

Peptidoglycan is the rigid, but flexible, macromolecule that surrounds and protects individual bacterial cells. It supplies the foundation for bacterial cell walls, defines an organism's shape and anchors protein complexes and extracellular organelles to the cell surface, all while remaining porous enough to admit essential nutrients and large compounds. Peptidoglycan fragments trigger neighbouring microorganisms to grow or to modify their own walls, serve as maturation signals for vertebrate immune systems and may be used to manipulate the immune system for the benefit of pathogenic organisms. Because it is unique to bacteria, peptidoglycan is one of the most valuable targets to which antibiotics may be directed. Although the components of peptidoglycan are known and we have a basic understanding of its biosynthesis, there remains a great deal to learn about its three‐dimensional organisation, its biological properties and activities, and how it expands and divides during bacterial growth.

Antibiotics That Inhibit Bacterial Peptidoglycan Synthesis ..

Two models of how peptidoglycan may be arranged in the bacterial cell wall. (a) In the classic horizontal (hoop) model, the polymerised glycan chains lie in the plane of the cell wall (transverse view, red arrow). A rod‐shaped cell is composed of numerous individual hoops side by side (Side view) that are linked to one another by peptide crosslinks (not shown). In this model, the hexagonal array of crosslinked peptidoglycan (shown in Figure b) lies flat and wraps around the surface of the bacterial cell. (b) In the proposed vertical (scaffold) model, the glycan chains extend up and out of the plane of the cell wall (transverse view, red arrow and blue spikes). A complete cell wall is composed of many chains facing outward (Side view, blue spikes) and linked to one another by peptide crosslinks (not shown). The easiest way to envision this model is to rotate the hexagonal array of crosslinked peptidoglycan shown in Figure b by 90°, and then picture the chains of white and blue rectangles (the glycan chains) extending upwards out of the page (e.g. outwards from the surface of a cell). In (b), the extended glycan chains are not drawn to the same scale as the bacterial cell; their extension is exaggerated to illustrate the difference between the horizontal and vertical models.

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