Quick academic help
Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.
DNA Synthesis Occurs During the S Phase of the Cell Cycle
As a cell approaches the end of the G1 phase it is controlled at a vital checkpoint, called G1/S, where the cell determines whether or not to replicate its DNA. At this checkpoint the cell is checked for DNA damage to ensure that it has all the necessary cellular machinery to allow for successful cell division. As a result of this check, which involves the interactions of various proteins, a "molecular switch" is toggled on or off. Cells with intact DNA continue to S phase; cells with damaged DNA that cannot be repaired are arrested and "commit suicide" through apoptosis, or programmed cell death. A second such checkpoint occurs at the G2 phase following the synthesis of DNA in S phase but before cell division in M phase. Cells use a complex set of enzymes called kinases to control various steps in the cell cycle. Cyclin Dependent Kinases, or CDKs, are a specific enzyme family that use signals to switch on cell cycle mechanisms. CDKs themselves are activated by forming complexes with cyclins, another group of regulatory proteins only present for short periods in the cell cycle. When functioning properly, cell cycle regulatory proteins act as the body's own tumor suppressors by controlling cell growth and inducing the death of damaged cells. Genetic mutations causing the malfunction or absence of one or more of the regulatory proteins at cell cycle checkpoints can result in the "molecular switch" being turned permanently on, permitting uncontrolled multiplication of the cell, leading to carcinogenesis, or tumor development.
the G1, or gap, phase, in which the cell grows and prepares to synthesize DNA;
the S, or synthesis, phase, in which the cell synthesizes DNA;
the G2, or second gap, phase, in which the cell prepares to divide; and
the M, or mitosis, phase, in which cell division occurs.
The eukaryotic cell cycle is ..
The cell cycle involves a complex series of molecular and biochemical signaling pathways. As illustrated in the diagram above the cell cycle has four phases:
Professors Sir David Lane and David Glover, two of our key scientists, have built a leading position in cell cycle drug discovery and development. Sir David discovered the p53 protein, a key regulatory gene that malfunctions in about two-thirds of cancer patients. David Glover discovered several genes (Aurora and Polo kinases) that drive mitosis and that in mutated form are linked to many cancers.
THE EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE - CCBC Faculty Web
Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals' drug discovery and development programs build on recent scientific advances in understanding these molecular mechanisms. Through our expertise, we are developing cell cycle-based, mechanism-targeted cancer therapies that emulate the body's natural process in order to stop the growth of cancer cells. This approach can limit the damage to normal cells and the accompanying side effects caused by conventional chemotherapeutic agents.
The cell cycle, the process by which cells progress and divide, lies at the heart of cancer. In normal cells, the cell cycle is controlled by a complex series of signaling pathways by which a cell grows, replicates its DNA and divides. This process also includes mechanisms to ensure errors are corrected, and if not, the cells commit suicide (apoptosis). In cancer, as a result of genetic mutations, this regulatory process malfunctions, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation.
Why choose our assistance?
As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.
Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.
We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.
We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.
Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.
We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.
How it works
You submit your order instructions
We assign an appropriate expert
The expert takes care of your task
We send it to you upon completion
Average quality score
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."