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2522894 Methcathinone Synthesis 1 - SlideShare
Wood, D. M., Davies, S., Puchnarewicz, M., et al. (2009) ‘Recreational use of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) presenting with sympathomimetic toxicity and confirmed by toxicological screening. Abstracts of the 2009 North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology Annual Meeting, September 21–26, 2009, San Antonio, Texas, USA’, 47 (7), p. 733.
Synthetic cathinones are related to the parent compound cathinone (Figure 1), one of the psychoactive principals in ( Forsk). Cathinone derivatives are the β-keto (βk) analogues of a corresponding . The group includes several substances that have been used as of medicinal products, e.g. amfepramone (diethylpropion; Figure 2). Since the mid-2000s, unregulated ring-substituted cathinone derivatives have appeared in the European recreational drugs market. The most commonly available cathinones sold on the recreational market in the period up to 2010 appear to be mephedrone (Figure 3) and methylone (Figure 4). These products are usually encountered as highly pure white or brown powders. Ring-substituted cathinone derivatives are claimed to have effects similar to those of , or (ecstasy), but little is known of their detailed pharmacology. Apart from cathinone (Figure 1), methcathinone (Figure 5) and two ’s amfepramone (Figure 2) and pyrovalerone, cathinone derivatives are not under international control.
EMCDDA | Synthetic cathinones profile (chemistry, …
Bath Salts and Drug Testing – Why Monitor?
Ameritox provides quantitative bath salt testing results for eight of the most common synthetic cathinone compounds:
* The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) placed these three synthetic cathinones into Schedule 1 in October 2011, as “necessary to avoid imminent hazard to the public safety” due to high abuse potential and lack of medical use.
Methcathinone - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Learn More About Bath Salts & Testing With Ameritox
As the leader in pain medication monitoring, Ameritox urine drug monitoring provides testing for a broader set of synthetic cathinones than the three compounds placed on the DEA list of illicit drugs. Ameritox will continue to evaluate customer needs as new synthetic cathinone compounds emerge.
The structural classification of cathinone derivatives found in drug seizures, collected samples or offered for sale on Internet sites (see Figure 8). Those that are or have been used as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are shown emboldened.
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2522895 Methcathinone Synthesis 2.
Synthetic cathinones are mostly encountered as white or brown amorphous or crystalline powders, occasionally encapsulated. Unlike many phenethylamine derivatives (, etc.), tablets are less common but are sometimes available on the illicit market, presumably as a replacement for .
Khat and synthetic cathinones: a review | SpringerLink
As with phenethylamines, in the absence of ring-substitution, cathinones behave as central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, although invariably with a lower potency than the corresponding phenethylamine analogue. The lower potency is caused by the β-keto group creating a more polar molecule less able to cross the blood–brain barrier. Studies on the metabolism of methcathinone derivatives in rats and humans have shown that they are N-demethylated, the keto group is reduced to hydroxyl, and ring alkyl groups are oxidised. Otherwise, few formal studies have been made on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of ring-substituted cathinones. From observations of patients who presented with suspected mephedrone toxicity, it appears that cathinone derivatives show similar effects to amphetamine derivatives. The first toxicologically confirmed fatal case directly linked to mephedrone use was recorded in Sweden in 2008.
Khat and synthetic cathinones: a review
Simple derivatives such as methcathinone and -dimethylcathinone can be synthesised by oxidation of ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) and-methylephedrine (or -methylpseudoephedrine) respectively. This requires reacting the precursor with a solution of potassium permanganate in dilute sulfuric acid. The precursors can be obtained as specific enantiomers, thereby ensuring that the synthesis is stereoselective. Cathinone itself can be made in a similar way, starting from phenylpropanolamine (norephedrine). One of the hazards of the permanganate process is that users can suffer manganese poisoning if the product is not purified.
Methcathinone Synthesis | Naked Science Forum
The ring-substituted -methylcathinone derivatives are best synthesised by reacting the suitably substituted bromopropiophenone with methylamine; the result is always . In the case of methylone, for example, 2-bromo-3,4-methylenedioxy-propiophenone can be prepared by reacting 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone with bromine. These precursor substances are readily available and none of them is under international control. Other methods are required to produce the derivatives, but apart from MDPV, substances such as PPP, MPHP, MOPPP and MDPPP, which briefly appeared in Germany in 2004 (see Table 1), have since been rarely observed.
Clandestine methcathinone (ephedrone) synthesis …
Synthetic cathinones have only recently appeared on the recreational drugs market, and few formal epidemiological studies have been published. There are no nationwide studies within the EU on the prevalence of mephedrone use in any given population. In an online survey conducted in late 2010 in collaboration with the United Kingdom’s dance music magazine Mixmag, mephedrone was the fourth most-commonly used drug in the past year (after , and ) and had been tried by 61 % of respondents. 25 % of respondents had tried it within the last month, which was a decrease compared to 33.6% in late 2009. It should be noted that mephedrone was scheduled in the UK mid-april 2010.
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