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Hydrophilic SPIONs for biological application usually consist of an iron oxide core and a surface coating. On one hand, synthesis methods of the iron oxide core, stabilizer and reaction parameters have significant effects on the size and magnetic properties of SPIONs [, -]. On the other hand, surface coating materials, functionalization materials and surface engineering methods significantly affect ultimate size in living fluid, biocompatibility, cell internalization and duration in cells [, , , ]. Therefore, to prepare ideal SPIONs, major factors such as core synthesis, surface coating and functional materials, and surface engineering methods should be carefully considered.

Keywords: Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB); Stalk fibre

Table 1 shows the physicochemical test outcomes of the extracted SCMC acquired from the OPEFB stalk fibre. The pH of the 1% CMC solution was in the range 6 to 8. The 0.1% CMC solution revealed no layer of foam after shaking was completed. This test indicates that the extracted SCMC was different from other natural gums, cellulose ethers, and alginates.

Octenylsuccinate Derivatives of Carboxymethyl Starch ..

Characterization of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-lignocellulosic compositions

Bhattacharyya, D., Singhal, R. S., and Kulkarni, P. R. (1995). “A comparative account of conditions for synthesis of sodium carboxymethyl starch from corn and amaranth starch,” Carbohydrate Polymers 27(4), 247-253. DOI: 10.1016/0144-8617(95)00083-6

TAT peptide (GRKKRRQRRRGYK) purified from HIV TAT protein contains both transmembrane and nuclear localization signal. TAT-cross linked iron oxide (TAT-CLIO) was prepared by covalently conjugating CLIO-NH2 to C-terminal cysteine side chain of tat-peptide []. The hNSCs labeled with tat-CLIO contained 2.15±0.3 Fe pg/cell, which was 59-fold, 430-fold and 6-fold higher than those of the hNSCs labeled with ferumoxides, monocrystalline iron oxide (MION) or CLIO-NH2, respectively [].

Synthesis and properties of carboxymethyl kudzu root starch

EFFECT: use of the conjugate allows for increasing duration of the presence of the low-molecular substance in blood plasma.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that prior to being fed into the reactor and mixing machine starch and carboxymethylcelluose agent are pre-mixed in a screw machine.

1. A method of obtaining a sodium salt of carboxymethyl amylum, including the processing of starch carboxymethyloxime agent monochloracetate sodium, the introduction of special additives, processing with an aqueous solution of hydroxide n the sodium in the reactor and mixing machine in the mode of intense shear forces and drying, characterized in that the number of working zones of the reactor and mixing machines in which they are provided intensive shear forces, equal to not less than three when the fill factor of the working zones of 0.5-0.8 at the shear rate 500-1500 with-1.

ASTM D1439-03 (2008). “Standard test methods for sodium carboxymethylcellulose,” ASTM International, West Conshocken, PA.
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Method for preparing carboxymethyl starch sodium salt

There were few changes that formed between an 1800 cm-1 to 1000 cm-1 band range throughout the extraction process. Two characteristic peaks of lignin located at 1505 cm-1 (C=C stretching of aromatic ring of lignin) (Yunos et al. 2012) and at 1300 cm-1 to 1200 cm-1 corresponded to the C-O stretching of the aryl group in lignin were found in the spectra of the raw OPEFB stalk fibres (Abraham et al. 2011). This shows that the lignin was removed after the acidic bleaching. The alkali treatment process was based on the disappearance of the peak at 1505 cm-1 and the decrease in the peak intensity at 1300 cm-1 to 1200 cm-1 in α-cellulose of the OPEFB stalk spectra and the SCMC. Simultaneously, the C=O stretching that represented carboxylic acids, aldehyde, or ketone in hemicellulose appeared in the region of 1730 cm-1 to 1720 cm-1 in the untreated and bleached OPEFB stalk fibres (Fahma et al. 2010; Yunos et al. 2012). The withdrawal of lignin and hemicellulose after the extraction resulted in the disappearance of the particular peak from the spectra in the α-cellulose and the SCMC from the OPEFB stalk fibres.

Synthesis of carboxymethyl starch.

The CrI of the raw OPEFB stalk fibre was 72.8%, for the bleached OPEFB stalk fibres it was 88.6%, and for the α-cellulose of OPEFB stalks it was 56.8%. The withdrawal of lignin and hemicellulose, which were amorphous in nature, caused a considerable increase in the CrI after the bleaching process (Ramli et al. 2013). The FTIR results showed that the absence of the lignin and hemicellulose characteristic peaks marked that the components were greatly removed after it was chemically treated. Because cellulose is considered to be semi-crystalline in nature, the crystallinity index was reduced to 56.8%, which was approaching amorphous characteristics. The cellulose molecules treated in the alkaline medium during the carboxymethylation process caused swelling in the cellulose particles that exerted pressure on the crystalline part in the cellulose molecules in the vicinity and favorably distorted them. The dissociation and the distortion of the crystalline part caused by further swelling of cellulose molecules further reduces the crystallinity to 45.0% for SCMC (Fang et al. 2002). Previous studies showed a comparable crystallinity index of CMC at 38.3% (Mario et al. 2005) and 47.7% (Yanmei et al. 2012).

In this work,Polyacrylaimde grafted carboxymethyl starch ..

The peaks correspond to the crystalline amount, while the background corresponds to the amorphous amount. From the results obtained, it was observed that raw OPEFB stalk fibres demonstrated a broadened diffractions peak due to the crystalline structure of the fibre itself. The diffraction patterns showed the elimination of the crystalline composition number throughout the extraction process of SCMC. It was notable that the cellulose was semi-crystalline in nature. The diffraction peaks that appeared for the α-cellulose of OPEFB stalks nearly disappeared when compared to the raw OPEFB stalk fibre and bleached OPEFB stalk fibre because further treatment by using sodium hydroxide was completed to remove the lignin and hemicellulose. The extensive peaks corresponded to small crystallites in the cellulose granules. The diffraction arrangement of extracted SCMC showed a reduction in the crystalline structure from the native cellulose. All of the characteristic peaks for the original cellulose nearly disappeared and were converted into an amorphous phase. Thus, CMC has excellent solubility (Zhang and Wu 1992) as lower crystallinity represents higher solubility (He et al. 2009).

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