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Carbohydrate Biosynthesis in ..

And when we talk about dehydration synthesis, that's how these monosaccharides are bonded together. So generally what would happen is here we would have a hydroxide ion here. And coming off here we would have a hydroxide ion. So I'm going to highlight this a little bit better so you can see it.

Carbohydrate synthesis occurs in the stroma ..

There is no specific carbohydrate requirement for humans except for , the C6 compound . Man, some primates, and guinea pigs lack one of the enzymes required for the synthesis of L-ascorbic acid. This has been understood as an inborn metabolic disorder arising during primate evolution. Consequently, L-ascorbic acid has to be taken up with our food. All other monosaccharides can be synthesized and are not required dietary supplements.

Animation of protein synthesis - Answers on HealthTap

So carbohydrates being an organic compound, we'll talk a little bit more in depth about what exactly are the characteristics of a carbohydrate. So carbohydrates are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. And carbohydrates are used in our body. They're broken down into sugars that our bodies and our cells use for energy.

And monosaccharides are the building blocks for larger molecules. So other larger molecules, larger carbohydrates, are built off of these monosaccharides. So a common example of a monosaccharide is glucose. That's one that you're probably fairly familiar with. Our body and our cells use glucose for energy. So for cellular respiration, glucose is necessary for that process to happen.

Synthesis of rigid p-terphenyl-linked carbohydrate mimetics.

. Brief, one-page "what are carbohydrates" descriptions show up on wide variety of sites on the Web; nice examples can be found in the section of a New Zealand commercial site, , and in a set of pages for an course at North Park University in Chicago. A more thorough introduction resides in the of the Terre Haute Center for Medical Education (THCME). There, a lengthy entry on the (part of a larger section on the ) walks the user in no-nonsense fashion through the essentials of carbohydrate nomenclature, classification, and structure. Also included on the site are good introductory write-ups on (in the context of a larger discussion on protein post-translational modifications), , and a wide variety of other topics in biochemistry and molecular biology. Highly recommended.

Carbohydrate metabolism begins with digestion in the small intestine where monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood stream. Blood sugar concentrations are controlled by three hormones: insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine. If the concentration of glucose in the blood is too high, insulin is secreted by the pancreas. Insulin stimulates the transfer of glucose into the cells, especially in the liver and muscles, although other organs are also able to metabolize glucose.

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Synthesis of rigid p-terphenyl-linked carbohydrate mimetics

So you'll notice we have two hydroxide ions together. And if you take out one, two of the hydrogens and one of the oxygen, it forms water. So we could get rid of this one, this one, and this one. So what we have left is the O in between them, like you see on the diagram here. And then water is formed as a byproduct. So that's what happens in dehydration synthesis when two monosaccharides are joined together.

Comprehensive Metabolomic resources, reagents and kits

And our third type of sugar is polysaccharides. The prefix poly- means many. So we have many sugar units joined together. And this is what forms complex carbohydrates, such as starches and cellulose.

Physiologic Effects of Insulin - Colorado State University

So we can have up to thousands of monomers connected by dehydration synthesis. So again, that's when they're linked together and water is formed as a byproduct. And the reason that these are complex carbohydrates, they have a lot more energy.

15/01/2018 · Physiologic Effects of Insulin

The best sites for visualizing carbohydrate structure, however, are those built around the plug-in. If you've equipped your browser with this plug-in, head first to , part of a larger set of molecular-structure images at Carnegie Mellon University called . The page places interactive Chime images of monosaccharides and disaccharides side by side for comparison; a separate page on the site explores structures for . offers up a set of for viewing, rotating, and editing. And the has assembled some excellent models of and , with explanatory glosses in the right-hand frame. (The site also includes some interesting material on glycoproteins, discussed below.)

Glycogenesis - Definition, Pathway, Steps and Regulation

The general field of protein-sugar interactions has spurred some particularly fine 3D visualizations using . One of the best is , which includes an especially instructive demo on the workings of the . Another excellent tutorial, on , can be found at the of California Lutheran University. The University of Arizona Biochemistry Department offers a very nice 3D Chime image of an (as well as a that purports to show carbohydrate mobility in a glycoprotein). And a for an upper-division course on molecular cell physiology at the University of Colorado, taught by Mark Dubin, includes fascinating material on , the , the , and the .

Biochemistry Interactive Video Animations - Bio-Alive

Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology have witnessed a rapid expansion during the last few years with the development of numerous new, imaginative and efficient syntheses which provide further insight into structures and biological interactions of glycoconjugates. Glycosylation reactions are widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and bio-active compounds. In biology and medicine oligosaccharides play a central role in immuno-stimulation, cancer or allergic responses. Glycoscience is a very instructive example of how one common topic of interest stimulates both chemistry and biology to collectively open scientific frontiers.
This synergy is made visible in this work. Three leading experts in the fields of Glycochemistry and Glycobiology have invited numerous renowned authors to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances and findings in Glycoscience. This four-volume handbook presents an integrated and cutting-edge view, and covers all chemical aspects, such as syntheses and analysis of carbohydrates and oligosaccharides, as well as the biological role and activity of oligosaccharides and carbohydrate/protein interactions.

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