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Squalene is the biochemical precursor to the whole family of steroids

T1 - Specific inhibition of basic calcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate crystal-induction of metalloproteinase synthesis by phosphocitrate

Synthesis and characterization of pure and zinc doped calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate nanoparticles

AB - Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal deposition diseases are a group of heterogeneous arthritides which are a significant source of morbidity in the elderly. Both crystals induced mitogenesis and metalloproteinase (MP) synthesis and secretion by fibroblasts and chondrocytes which may promote degradation of intra-articular tissue. We have previously shown that phosphocitrate (PC), an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystallization, specifically blocks BCP crystal-induced mitogenesis in 3T3 cells. This led us to examine the effect of PC on BCP and CPPD crystal induction of MP synthesis in human fibroblasts. PC (10-3 to 10-4 M) specifically inhibited the crystal-induced collagenase and stromelysin mRNA accumulation while having no effect on epidermal growth factor-induced or basal levels of mRNA for both enzymes. Western blots (collagenase) of conditioned media confirmed that PC blocked crystal-induced proteinase secretion as well. Moreover, PC (10-3 M) also blocked the crystal induction of c-fos and c-jun. Since FOS and JUN proteins form a transacting activator (AP-1) for expression of collagenase and stromelysin genes, PC may block the synthesis of both enzymes by inhibiting the transcription of c-fos and c-jun.

Cholesterol: Synthesis, Metabolism, Regulation

N2 - Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal deposition diseases are a group of heterogeneous arthritides which are a significant source of morbidity in the elderly. Both crystals induced mitogenesis and metalloproteinase (MP) synthesis and secretion by fibroblasts and chondrocytes which may promote degradation of intra-articular tissue. We have previously shown that phosphocitrate (PC), an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystallization, specifically blocks BCP crystal-induced mitogenesis in 3T3 cells. This led us to examine the effect of PC on BCP and CPPD crystal induction of MP synthesis in human fibroblasts. PC (10-3 to 10-4 M) specifically inhibited the crystal-induced collagenase and stromelysin mRNA accumulation while having no effect on epidermal growth factor-induced or basal levels of mRNA for both enzymes. Western blots (collagenase) of conditioned media confirmed that PC blocked crystal-induced proteinase secretion as well. Moreover, PC (10-3 M) also blocked the crystal induction of c-fos and c-jun. Since FOS and JUN proteins form a transacting activator (AP-1) for expression of collagenase and stromelysin genes, PC may block the synthesis of both enzymes by inhibiting the transcription of c-fos and c-jun.

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal deposition diseases are a group of heterogeneous arthritides which are a significant source of morbidity in the elderly. Both crystals induced mitogenesis and metalloproteinase (MP) synthesis and secretion by fibroblasts and chondrocytes which may promote degradation of intra-articular tissue. We have previously shown that phosphocitrate (PC), an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystallization, specifically blocks BCP crystal-induced mitogenesis in 3T3 cells. This led us to examine the effect of PC on BCP and CPPD crystal induction of MP synthesis in human fibroblasts. PC (10-3 to 10-4 M) specifically inhibited the crystal-induced collagenase and stromelysin mRNA accumulation while having no effect on epidermal growth factor-induced or basal levels of mRNA for both enzymes. Western blots (collagenase) of conditioned media confirmed that PC blocked crystal-induced proteinase secretion as well. Moreover, PC (10-3 M) also blocked the crystal induction of c-fos and c-jun. Since FOS and JUN proteins form a transacting activator (AP-1) for expression of collagenase and stromelysin genes, PC may block the synthesis of both enzymes by inhibiting the transcription of c-fos and c-jun.

Protein Synthesis -Translation and Regulation

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