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THE BURGESS MODEL A landuse model 2

Park and Burgess realized that ecological and economic factors were converted into a social organization by the traditions and aspirations of city dwellers.

Ernest Burgess and the Concentric Zone Hypothesis

As you can see, the population decreases as the circles go outward. Burgess also theorized that those on the inner rings were less wealthy. Living near the city center was a hardship and only those able to afford transportation to work and shopping lived far from the dirty city center.

concentric zone model Flashcards | Quizlet

Gaithersburg.

Injury to the EF system (the PFC) will cause a collapsing downward of these levels of the hierarchy or a collapsing inward of these outwardly radiating concentric zones with the degree of collapse directly dependent on the severity of the injury and specific type of EF affected. EF tests may be assessing the most basic instrumental level of EF and even then, not especially well. EF ratings are assessing higher levels (methodical, tactical, and strategic) and so are closer to the impairments in major life activities likely to be adversely affected by disorders of EF (or injuries to the PFC). Hence, they are more predictive of such impairments than are EF tests.

Alderman, N., Burgess, P. W., Knight, C., & Henman, C. (2003). Ecological validity of a simplified version of the multiple errands shopping test. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 31-44.

One hypothesis, the concentric zone theory proposed ..

Bianchi, L. (1922). The mechanism of the brain and the function of the frontal lobes. Edinburgh, Scotland: Livingstone.

Others (Wolf & Wallerstein, 2001) have credited Butterfield and Belmont (1977) for the term but their use of it post-dates that of Pribram and so historical precedence goes to Pribram in most accounts of this term. It is here, then, some 100 years after the initiation of scientific interest in the functions of the PFC that its over-arching "executive" nature is declared. The PFC is the brain's executive. Just what features make a function executive in nature or not were not clearly specified by Pribram.

In time, the frontal lobe syndrome noted by Luria (1966) would evolve into an executive disorder (Fuster, 1997) or a "dysexecutive syndrome" (Baddeley, 1986; Wilson, Alderman, Burgess, Emslie, & Evans, 1996). Over the next 40 years, the frequency of use of the term EF would explode to become one of the most common terms to appear in neuropsychological journals. It would also be synonymous with the functions of the PFC. This conflating of distinct levels of analysis in science – the neurological with the psychological – would occur despite, as Denckla (1996) noted, this linkage being completely unnecessary to the theorizing or research occurring at each of these two different levels. The definition of EF would also increase in diversity to a point where 33 different concepts would be associated with the term by leading experts in neuropsychology (Eslinger, 1996), eventually reaching a point where EF could mean pretty much what the investigator wished it to be for the sake of their own investigative aims, as noted by Wolf and Wallerstein (2001).

Burgos,
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<p> The Burgess concentric zone model was assessed ..

To summarize, any charge of subjectivity leveled against interviews and rating scales in an effort to disparage them (and in defense of tests) without reference to further evidence concerning the purpose of the evaluation, the issue under investigation, and the evidence for reliability, validity, and utility of the scale is baseless. The validity of relatively broad human estimates as recorded in structured interviews or rating scales concerning the relative frequency of specific behaviors is itself a form of information that can be observed, recorded, and tested, for its reliability, validity, and utility no different than a response to any test. That is what matters and should be the basis upon which a clinician or scientist chooses a method of measurement and not on some inherent bias in favor of tests over rating scales no matter the issue at hand.

(4) According to the Concentric Zone Hypothesis…

Methodical – Self-Reliant: As the instrumental level matures, a higher level or concentric zone emerges in which the individual uses the self-directed EF level for daily adaptive functioning and survival. Unique to this level is that the individual is not just self-directing their actions, but is now organizing the immediate physical surroundings to assist with self-regulation toward goals, self-reliance, and social independence. The individual strings together simple chains of actions (a method) that achieve a relatively near-term goal (self-care, sustenance, and protection).

of the Chicago school concentric zone …

This significant failure of EF tests to relate well to EF ratings, daily life activities, or impairment in major domains of life could well indicate that the former are not assessing EF. This seems doubtful given that many of these tests have been shown to index activities in various regions of the PFC that largely underlies EF. And it is surely unlikely to be the case that EF ratings are not actually evaluating EF. After all, their item content has been drafted directly from definitions of EF and from lists of putative EF constructs in the literature as well as from observations and clinical descriptions of patients with PFC lesions believed to manifest the "dysexecutive syndrome" (Burgess et al., 1998; Gioia et al., 2000; Kertesz et al., 2000). Moreover, as noted above, these ratings are substantially related to impairment in various daily life activities and various domains of adaptive functioning, such as work, education, driving, social relationships, self-sufficiency, etc. in which EF would surely be operative. Therefore, the solution to this paradox of why EF tests and EF ratings are so poorly related lies elsewhere rather than in denigrating the EF rating scales.

S-cool the revision website - Models from Burgess and …

One solution to this has been to try to develop more ecologically valid tests for use in clinics, such as the BADS (Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome, Wilson, Alderman, Burgess, Emslie, & Evans, 1996). This has proven only partially successful (see O'Shea et al., 2010). Correlations improve somewhat in normal control groups but not necessarily in disordered samples; even then the shared variance improves to just 16% (O'Shea et al., 2010).

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