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Most Broad-spectrum Antibiotics Act By A ..
*Do not use as a medication for a fish food soak for internal treatment USE: Neomycin (a Aminoglycoside) is a broad spectrum antibiotic that is effective for aerobic gram-positive, some gram-negative such as Aeromonas of the gut, and occasionally Mycobacterium tuberculosis (), which is neither Gram-positive nor Gram-negative due to high lipid content in its wall.
Neomycin is poorly absorbed internally. The lack of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is the basis of the main use of Neomycin.Effective for some Gram-negative bacteria- Open red sores or ulcerations, intestinal infections, fin and tail damage. As noted, Neomycin can be effective for wounds, ulcerations, or large sores, however I have found best results when used in combination with Triple Sulfa for such issues (used in a fish bath at double dose can also yield better results).In severe cases where fins and tail are eaten away- treat with Kanamycin for this.
As well, Neomycin can be PART of a treatment for mycobacterium tuberculosis (symptoms, weight loss, a distended abdomen, loss of appetite, fin erosion, unusual coloration, spinal deformities, and listless behavior).Aminoglycosides such as Neomycin are mostly ineffective against anaerobic bacteria, fungi, yeast, and viruses.Neomycin is not absorbed by the intestinal tract and is effective in treatment of diseases thereof. But Neomycin can damage the kidneys as it is nephrotoxic when it enters the bloodstream, however since this drug is not readily absorbed in the intestinal tract it is useful for treatment of pathogens such as Aeromonas, particularly of the gut, that can lead to Dropsy or similar diseases.More about: Neomycin works well in freshwater or saltwater aquariums.
Neomycin is very effective when used in feeding due to the fact that this antibiotic does not get absorbed. This is my preferred way to treat with this antibiotic.For external use, Neomycin is more limited in use and should be used as you would the Human product; Neosporin.
That use would be for minor cuts, injuries, etc., not for major bacterial infections, especially since most major external fish infections are gram negative infections that Neomycin is not effective for. External use would be also similar to recommended use of Melafix.DOSAGE: To prepare medicated fish food with flake, FD, or frozen fish food; Use One Measure (2-5 gallon "in tank" dose) of Neoplex per 15 minute fish food soaking for an average 60 gallon bio load aquarium (I use "just enough" water to mix fish food and Neomycin).
After soak, pour entire contents into aquarium.For in tank treatment; 250 mg per 10 gallons of water.
Treat every 24 hours with a 25% water change before each treatment. Treat for 10 days. For tuberculosis, use for up to 30 days (Can be and should be combined with other treatments such as Isoniazid for Fish TB).Further Reference: *Do not use with fish suffering from inflammatory or ulcerative gastrointestinal diseaseUSE: Metronidazoles primary use is for the treatment of anaerobic gram positive bacteria including those that produce beta-lactamase. However, it is not effective against aerobic bacterium.
As well Metronidazole is effective for some protozoa (especially internal flagellates). Due to Metronidazole effectiveness against anaerobic bacteria (by selectively blocking some of the cell functions of anaerobic bacteria) this drug along with Neomycin is a good choice for bloating of the digestive tract (common in goldfish). Metronidazole when combined with Neomycin sulfate in a medicated fish food slurry can be a very good full spectrum internal/gut infection treatment, treating both aerobic and anaerobic bacterium.
Metronidazole selectively blocks some of the cell functions in anaerobic bacteria, resulting in their demise.Further Reading: Metronidazole is also a good choice for many protozoan parasite infections, especially for Cryptocaryon in marine aquaria.Metronidazole is also effective used in combination or by itself for internal parasites such as Nematodes or Trematodes. In marine aquarium infections is where Metronidazole really shines as it is very effective internally and since Marine fish are always drinking the water around them, medication is easily transported to the infected area. In Freshwater, treatment can be improved by soaking food as well and this is still an effective freshwater treatment as well.
It it is also noteworthy that Metronidazole is generally safe for most invertebrates, in particular shrimp and snails.Common aquatic uses for Metronidazole; Hole in the head disease (hexamita), chilodonella, plistophora (parasite disease usually seen in neons and cardinals that causes loss of color, darting, and eventually death.
(Please read Neon Tetra Disease in the reference section), salt water ich, bloat.Metronidazole can be combined with Nitrofurazone and Methylene Blue (1/2 dose for the Methylene blue) for an alternative treatment for anchor worms, especially for Trichlorfon sensitive fish.
Metronidazole is unique in some of its effectiveness and is excellent to combine with other treatments especially when affecting a cure is difficult (such as many internal parasites).
Probably the Aquarium Industries top fish remedy manufacturer, Aquatronics (that unfortunately went out of business), used Metronidazole in many of its multi antibiotic remedies as it very useful in combination.DOSAGE: 250-500 mg per 20 gallons. Treat every 48 hours (24 hours for severe problems) with a 25% water change before each treatment. Treat for 10 days.To prepare medicated fish food with flake, FD, or frozen fish food;
Use One Measure (2-5 gallon "in tank" dose) of Metronidazole per 15 minute fish food soaking for an average 60 gallon bio load aquarium (I use "just enough" water to mix fish food and Neomycin).
After soak, pour entire contents into aquarium.Metronidazole is often used in treating early stages or for prevention of Neon Tetra & FNT Disease.
Beta-lactam antibiotics have been suspected to increase TSST-1 production, therefore, it is commonly suggested that be used in the first few days. If there is no deep-seated infection, the duration of treatment need not exceed 10 to 15 days (). studies showed that silver sulfadiazine cream leads to increased toxin production by , suggesting ointment or povidone iodine solution may be better choices for topical care of infected sites (). Intravenous immune globulins have been used sporadically in very severe cases (). Effective prevention of recurrences included parenteral antibiotic treatment of the first episodes of TSS, education of the patient, and avoidance of tampons.
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors as Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
ibitory and bactericidal titers to assess the adequacy of antibiotic therapy are often recommended for osteomyelitis and endocarditis (,). Peak and trough bactericidal titers of at least 1:64 and 1:32, respectively, were suggested as good predictors of a successful therapeutic outcome in patients with infective endocarditis (). However, the serum bactericidal titer (SBT) is subject to variation and lack of reproducibility with staphylococci (,). The serum test does not predict efficacy in animal models of endocarditis (,). Clinically, the test lacks precision in predicting outcome or bacteriological failure (, ,,). Clinical response and results of follow-up blood cultures remain the best indicators of clinical outcome. Re-analysis of data from two large multicenter studies showed that outcome was strongly correlated with trough titers of SBTs (, ). This supports the concept that the efficacy of beta-lactams depends on the time above the MIC, as most patients in these studies received beta-lactams as their principal therapy (). Currently, it is not possible to define the optimal trough titer for a successful outcome.
xperimental animal model data supports the use of antiplatelet agents in endocarditis. Compared with controls, animals treated with aspirin and/or ticlopidine have smaller vegetations and better rates of sterilisation (, ) as well as bacterial dissemination and frequency of embolic events (). This is in contrast to a recent retrospective study showing increased mortality and cerebral events in patients with left-sided endocarditis (). The difference may lie in the fact that in the clinical study, most patients were fully anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists because of prosthetic valves, rather than receiving antiplatelet agents only.
divided into Narrow Spectrum and Broad Spectrum
Kanamycin is one of the more effective broad spectrum antibiotics available with recent tests showing it to surpass the Tetracycline class antibiotics in cultures including Minocyline (found in Maracyn II), although Kanacyn has been also been shown in these studies to be even more effective when combined with other antibiotics such as Nitrofurazone or Tetracyclines for a super antibiotic effect.
Kanamycin can also be used for aquatic Tuberculosis (), although Isoniazid is often the drug of choice, both can be used together as Isoniazid seems to affect certain active TB bacterium whereas Kanamycin has often different TB activity effectiveness (Kanamycin can also be combined with Neomycin for difficult cases of .
Here are two that can blended:
Kanamycin can be combined with Furan 2 to make an even more wide spectrum treatment, especially for difficult cases of Columnaris or Aeromonas.
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PHARMACOLOGY: NARROW SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS
. Pavoni GL, Gianella M, Falcone M, Scorzolini L, Liberatore M, Carlesimo B, Serra P, Venditti M. Conservative medical therapy of prosthetic joint infections: retrospective analysis of an 8-year experience. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004;10:831-837.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are ..
. Musher DM, Lamm N, Darouiche RO, Young EJ, Hamill RJ, Landon GC. The current spectrum of infection in a tertiary care hospital. Medicine 1994; 73:186-208.
TETRACYCLINES Broad Spectrum Antibiotics Prototype ..
. Korzeniowski O, Sande MA, the National Collaborative Endocarditis Study Group. Combination antimicrobial therapy for endocarditis in patients addicted to parenteral drugs and in nonaddicts: a prospective study. Ann Intern Med 1982;97:496-503.
[Local treatment of skin diseases with broad spectrum antibiotics
. Heldman AW, Hartert TV, Ray SC, Daoud EG, Kowalski TE, Pompili VJ, Sisson SD, Tidmore WC, vom Eigen KA, Goodman SN, Lietman PS, Petty BG, Flexner C. Oral antibiotic treatment of right-sided staphylococcal endocarditis in injection drug users: prospective randomized comparison with parenteral therapy. Am J Med 1996; 101:68-76.
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