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The breakdown and resynthesis of phosphagen in …
The continuous breakdown and resynthesis of prokaryotic mRNA allows for the fast production of new kinds of proteins and best explains the rapid adaptation of micro-organisms to a changing environment. In this way mRNA levels can regulate protein synthesis and cellular growth. However, the inherent instability of prokaryotic mRNA has been one of the main obstacles to the profitable production of proteins of interest in industrial micro-organisms. The ribonucleases present, RNA chaperones and a plethora of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) contribute to the network of post-transcriptional control of gene expression. RNAs differ in their susceptibility to degradation by endonucleases and exonucleases due to differences in their sequence and structure. The analysis of mRNA degradation has been difficult in all systems and, despite numerous studies, the process of RNA degradation is still poorly understood. Recent results appear to show that the similarities between RNA decay in the pro- and eukaryotic systems are greater than were generally believed. It is important to study RNA metabolism in different systems to allow universally conserved features to be recognized.
The human body is also capable of resynthesising ATP to allow it to continue producing energy. To do this it must use energy to reverse the equation shown above. This is known as an endothermic reaction as it requires energy. The breakdown of ATP is called exothermic as it produces energy. The process of breaking down and resynthesising ATP is efficient at producing energy as less energy is required to resynthesis the ATP than is made to break it down. Here is the Resynthesis equation:
Breakdown and resynthesis of PAA in solid phase 295 REFERENCES 1
Creatine Phosphate (CP) High energy chemical fuel
CP stores in mucles (limited), the rest is replenished by the ATP-CP system High energy bond- breaks to release energy for the APT-CP system aka: lactic acid system, fast glycolysis aka: oxidative system aka: phosphate energy system, phosphocreatine system, phosphagen system aka: slow glycolysis
Fast resysthesis of ATP
No O2 required
3X ATP production of ATP-CP system Disadvantages:
By product of H+ ions- cause fatigue
Less ATP production than aerobic system Advantages:
Highest yeild of ATP
Indefinate energy suppier
No toxic by-products
Allows lactic acid to be oxidised to become non-toxic Disadvantages
Slowest ATP resythesis
Fats have large O2 demand Advantages
Immediate ATP resynthesis
Used for maximal intensity exercise (95%+ max HR) Disadvantages:
Lowest yeild of ATP
Limited CP muscle stores tour de france
marathon Nutri grain iron man triathlon netball - leading out for ball AFL - running to kick for goal Tennis -
running to reach ball high jump
javelin Golf drive shot put 100m sprint Energy
Physical Activity Adenosine
(break down of ATP) The breakdown of a high energy bond between Phosphates in an ATP molecule to produce ADP is what releases the energy required
Proteins Fats/ Triglycerides Converted to AMINO ACIDS as food fuel
Stored as MUSCLES within the body Nuts Full cream milk Butter/margarine Cheese
Icecream Converted to FREE FATTY ACIDS (FFA's) as a food fuel
Stored as ADIPOSE TISSUE around body 20-25% >66% 15% 10% Most concentrated fuel in terms of energy
Predominantly used for energy production at rest as the complexity for the chemical breakdown of fats makes energy release too slow for the ATP demands for exercise, unless CHO stores deplete.
These energy systems can be developed with appropriate sessions. Glycolytic - the breakdown of glucose by enzymes into pyruvic and lactic acids with the release of energy (ATP). Phosphagen - the use of creatine phosphate stored in the muscles to generate energy (ATP). Denadal & Higino (2004) concluded from their research that 8 minutes is all you should take during track speed workouts over anything up to 800 metres - even those going deep into lactate build up. The aerobic energy system utilises proteins, fats and carbohydrate (glycogen) for resynthesising ATP.
Breakdown And Resynthesis Of Atp - …
Although the amount of tissue in the body tends to remain fairly constant over time, those tissues are actually undergoing an essentially continuous process of breakdown and resynthesis; the two processes together are generally referred to as tissue turnover. This holds for protein-based tissues such as plasma proteins and skeletal muscle which undergo a continuous process of breakdown and resynthesis. Fundamentally what occurs in terms of the amount of these tissues present depends on the long-term relationship between protein synthesis and breakdown.
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