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Branched-chain amino acid - Wikipedia

The seed oil of a Papaveraceae was shown to contain about 1% of 9-keto- and 11-keto-octacosanoic acids, and a 30 carbon chain keto fatty acid, 11-keto-triacontanoic acid ().

The isolation and structure elucidation of an unusual fatty acid with g-oxocrotonate partial structure have been described ().

These estolides are synthesized in vivo and regulated by fasting and high-fat feeding.

Genetic disorders of branched-chain amino acid metabolism produce amino acidopathies and various forms of organic aciduria with severe clinical consequences.


Branched-chain amino acids are sometimes used in enteral and parenteral feedings in the management of hepatic encephalopathy.

The lipid portion of the endotoxin, lipid A, is chemically distinct from allother lipids in biological membranes and consists of characteristic 3-hydroxyfatty acids, primarily with carbon chain lengths from 10 to 18, attached tohydroxyl and amino groups of a disaccharide backbone. It has been proposedthat 3-hydroxy fatty acid quantification may be employed as biomarkers ofendotoxins and Gram-negative bacterial community in atmospheric aerosols ().

Further works characterized its biosynthesis by a D-6 desaturase acting on palmitic acid ().

N-15 fatty acids : An unusual 20 carbon fatty acid (20:1 n-15) is found in high concentration (about 60%) in seeds of (meadowfoam), an herbaceous winter annual plant native to the pacific Northwest area of the United States.


Cerulenin is an antifungal antibiotic discovered in the culture filtrate of  () and shown to inhibit fatty acid biosynthesis ().

They show structural similarity with anandamide and pharmacological studies have shown that they bind significantly to cannabinoid (CB2) receptors.

A method for the isolation of C18 fatty acid amides from lipid extracts and their analysis by mass spectrometry was reported ().

The cyclopropyl fatty amide, grenadamide, was detected from the cyanobacterium () and a branched-chain fatty amide was isolated from the dinoflagellate ().
Several alkylamides have been isolated from (Asteraceae), one of the most popular medicinal plant used for treatment and prevention of common cold and respiratory tract infections ().

While many acetylenic fatty acids have been prepared synthetically, only some species are found in natural oils.
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Branched chain fatty acids | definition of branched …

10-methoxyoctadecanoic, 11-methoxyeicosanoic and 13-methoxynonadecanoic acid were detected in the bacterium ().
Unusual long-chain methoxylated fatty acids were detected in the fungi (the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew) ().

A novel, branched, saturated, primary fatty acid amide is disclosed

These methoxylated fatty acids could have originated from bacteria in symbiosis with the .
Two 2-methoxy fatty acids with a very long carbon chain (2R,5Z,9Z)-2-methoxy-25-methyl-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid and (2R,5Z,9Z)-2-methoxy-24-methyl-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid were isolated from the Caribbean sponge Asteropus niger and were shown to be effective topoisomerase IB inhibitors (., Lipids 2016, 51, 245–256).

Several saturated

Biosynthesis of branched chain fatty acids

Their general formula is R-CO-NHOH.

These compounds are receiving a lot of attention due to their biological activity as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase with potent topical antiinflammatory activity (), metal chelators, agent for removing impurities from mineral ores, efficient surfactants in the detergent industry ().
Contrary to some short chain hydroxamic acids, fatty hydroxamic acids are not commercially available and are synthesized chemically () or by lipase-catalyzed reaction ().

Azamacrolides are alkaloids found in defensive droplets from glandular hairs of the pupa of the Mexican bean beetle, ().


This fatty acid has two triple bonds but has also an allenic structure : tridecatetra-3,5,7,8-en-10,12-diynoic acid.
A diynoic acid (13,14-dihydrooropheic acid) has been isolated from an Indonesian plant () and was shown to have a potent antimicrobial activity ().

BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACIDS (BCCA): Valine; Leucine; Isoleucine

When administered to animals these fatty acids were described to inhibit several lipoenzymes (lipoxygenase, prostaglandin synthetase) and modify tissue fatty acid composition (Liu Y et al., Lipids 1997, 32, 965).

Two acetylenic acids (6-octadecynoic and 6-nonadecynoic acids) were described in the roots of a Peruvian plant ( Rubiaceae) and were shown to inhibit the growth of fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant strains ().

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