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Boron: A Better Energy Carrier than Hydrogen
Note the one extra word, hot concentrated nitric acid. Both sources agree that the boron must be in very small pieces, so that it has a lot of surface area. This may not apply to the reaction with fluorine, because boron trifluoride is gaseous and does not seal off a boron surface the way the oxide does.
Most present-day traffic in zinc is in the elemental form, not the oxide. With boron it's the other way around. Supplying elemental boron for many thousands of boron cars will require new deoxidation plants. But the large existing market for boria will easily be able to accommodate those B car operators who want to sell the used B atoms back. Contrastingly, if there came to be thousands of zinc fuel cell motorists, and they wanted to sell the quarter-tonne loads of zinc oxide that each would frequently possess, the price such a load would fetch would diminish, perhaps below zero.
Electrochemical routes for industrial synthesis - SciELO
Elemental boron is not considered to be toxic. In its pure crystalline form it is chemically inert. It does not dissolve in water, nor in boiling hydrochloric acid. Mammalian digestive fluids include hydrochloric acid, but only dilute, and not boiling. The apparent absence of a history of toxic effects is consistent with an absence of toxicity due to being totally unassimilable.
Boria dissolves slowly as boric acid, and much of the world's boron is already in the sea in this form. The boron concentration is variously reported as 4.4 and 4.6 parts per million by mass. Most of the mass of boric acid is hydrogen and oxygen so 4.6 ppm B translates into 26 ppm boric acid. In the whole ocean this means roughly 30 trillion tonnes of it.
Electrochemical routes for industrial synthesis
Fuel cell researchers report harvesting the oxidation energy of boron and vanadium simultaneously by making them into zirconia-stabilized VB2 anodes. 21.622 grams of boron and 50.942 grams of vanadium can be oxidized with a delta 'G' of -1914.6 kJ. Combining them as vanadium diboride reduces their subsequent delta 'G' of oxidation by approximately the delta 'H' of that boride-formation, , leaving roughly -1709 kJ. Divided by the total fuel mass and inverted, that works out as 42.47 kg/GJ.
Alpha-rhombohedral boron crystals, which May and Levasheff say form between 800 and 1,100 Celsius, are the form of boron that is red. The colour of single crystals is said to be a beautiful orange-red due to their transparency to light of photon energy below 2 eV. So perhaps this form, if the crystals could grow big, could be the gem variety of boron as diamond is of carbon.
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Santos * ICEMS-DEQB, Instituto Superior Técnico, TU Lisbon, Av
Boria is a glass-forming oxide. Tables of physical properties list both a vitreous (glassy) form and a crystalline form that is quite a bit denser and minutely lower in energy. Because of this energy difference, if you burn boron and the ash you get is droplets of the glassy form, your final energy yield is about 99 percent what you would get if it went all the way to crystalline B2O3.
General & Introductory Chemistry
This is almost true of its atom density also. Among solid forms of pure elements only diamond has more atoms per cubic centimetre, and unlike boron, diamond is stable only under high pressure.
PDF Downloads : Oriental Journal of Chemistry
Boron's mass density is not exceptional. The beta-rhombohedral crystalline form has density 2.34 kg/L and that is the basis of the energy-specific volume figures used here. gives a density of 2.46 kg/L but that is the density of alpha-rhombohedral boron. Neither form is quite as dense as aluminum, 2.70 kg/L, but since the average boron atom is only 0.40 as heavy as an aluminum that isn't surprising.
Internet Database of Periodic Tables - Meta-Synthesis
Nature has done this, and on a scale large enough to support an industry that annually extracts ready-concentrated, cheap borates containing a quarter of a million tonnes of . Much of this boron has passed through people's houses, particularly their laundry rooms, in the form of perborate bleach or borax. Much less than one percent has been separated from its oxygen.
Glossary - SynLube Lube-4-Life Synthetic Super Lubricants
Based on the density from CRC tables of the glassy form of the oxide, 1.812 kilograms per litre. This is the only form of boria that matters in the context of using boron and boria as, respectively, energy supply and demand carriers.
Boron: A Better Energy Carrier than Hydrogen? (28 …
The original form of Teflon®is polytetrafluoroethylene, or PTFE. The molecular structure of Teflon® is based on a chain of carbon atoms, the same as allpolymers. Unlike some other fluoropolymers, in Teflon®this chain is completely surrounded by fluorine atoms. The bond between carbon andfluorine is very strong, and the fluorine atoms shield the vulnerable carbon chain.
This unusual structure gives Teflon® itsunique properties.
In addition to its extreme slipperiness, it is inert to almost everyknown chemical.
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