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THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON REACTION RATES
A building with no windows but with CO2…
If now the heat resistance (CO2) of the walls is instantaneously increased, at first the outer surface temperature drops and the inner surface temperature rises, while the interior temperature is still unchanged. In this situation less heat escapes from the building than is released by the indoor heating system. The imbalance leads to a slow ascent of the interior temperature that continues until the outer surface temperature returns to its original value.
Fundamental theory and application of the physical and chemical processes in water and wastewater treatment: Introduction to water quality parameters, standards, Fundamentals, optimization and design of the following processes for water treatment: Coagulation, Flocculation: Destabilization mechanism, pC-pH (coagulation) diagram, Flocculation kinetics, Sedimentation: Design equations for settling basins, Water Conditioning, Softening: Chemical Reactions for softening, Softening process design, Disinfection: Breakpoint chlorination, CT concept and inactivation kinetics, Reactor design: CSTR, batch, plug flow reactor equations, tracer tests
The key importance of activation energy
The Earth doesn’t care from where a CO2 molecule originates. All that matters is how long it takes to reach equilibrium again if the amount exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere each year increases by a small amount. Left to itself the Earth would return to an equilibrium concentration say after a massive volcanic eruption. All that would happen is that vegetation and plancton would bloom in the medium term to absorb any small excess. The same is true of man made CO2 (provided we don’t tarmac over the planet).
If we merely double CO2 concentrations, then the added CO2 will mix within the existing atmosphere. It does not seem like this added amount can make much of a difference in the point in the upper atmosphere where newly radiated infrared energy can escape? If this band did grow in height, then the argument stated would make sense? Does the air pressure at sea level change?
Increasing the collision frequency
I don’t understand your reasoning regarding atmospheric pressure. Can you explain? The partial pressure of CO2 has gone up because we have emitted more, but it is such a small percentage of atmosphere that its effect upon atmospheric pressure is negligible compared to fluctuations in lapse rate and weather.
(Because of conversation depth, replying to myself)
@ConcernedCitizen: That’s precisely the point, as Clive explained. The broad absorption/emission band for CO2 at 667 per cm aligns almost perfectly with the main emissions for a blackbody in the range of Earth’s surface temperature. Not only does Earth not produce much in the absorption/emission regions for N2 and O2, but the incoming radiation from Sun is much higher in frequency and, so, CO2/H2O/CH4/O3 are transparent to it. Not so for the outgoing. And, also as Clive described, the only part of the atmosphere that radiates and dumps energy is the top.
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Catalysts and activation energy
Review and relevance of thin films, various thin film processing techniques, an introduction to vacuum science and Technology, Thin-film evaporation processes, Plasma and Ion Beam processing of Thin Films, Chemical Vapor Deposition, Non-vacuum thin film processing techniques, Substrate Surfaces and Thin-film Nucleation, Epitaxy, Microstructural characterization of thin films and surfaces, Interdiffusion, Reactions and phase transformations in thin films, Overview of various properties of thin films and their relation to their microstructures.
The key importance of activation energy
Definition of a phase, thermodynamic criterion for phase stability, equilibrium between phases, Gibb’s phase rule, introduction to phase diagrams, potential phase diagram (e.g. temperature-pressure diagram of H2O), composition phase diagram and concepts of solidus, liquidus, solvus curves, tie line, lever rule, Introduction to various types of transformations such as eutectic, eutectoid etc.; Solidification: homogenous and heterogeneous nucleation, rate of nucleation, growth, isomorphous phase diagram (e.g. Cu-Ni) and solidification of alloys, Scheil equation, constitutional and thermal super-cooling, dendritic solidification principles, Eutectic phase diagrams (Al-Si, Ag-Cu, Fe-C) and eutectic solidification. Introduction to other phase transformations involving liquid phase such as peritectic and monotectic transformations; Solid-Solid Phase Transformations: Diffusional phase transformation; classical nucleation theory, growth, role of interfaces, spinodal decomposition. Partitionless phase transformations; massive and displacive/martensitic phase transformation; Thermo-mechanical treatments: Annealing, Normalizing, Quenching treatments, CCT/TTT diagrams, hardening and introduction to surface treatments, tempering, deformation induced phase transformation.
In other words, to move the activation energy on the graph like this:
Introduction to material characterization techniques; Structural Characterisation: X-Ray diffraction (principle, phase identification and quantification), Electron Microscopy (principle, morphology, crystallite size, elemental detection); Surface characterization: Atomic Force Microscopy (for determining topography) Contact angle (surface energy, hydrophilicity); Electrical characterization: Four probe measurement (for measuring sheet resistance), Hall measurement (for measuring sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility); Thermal characterization: Differential Scanning calorimetry , Differential Thermal Analyzer (to understand phase transition); Mechanical (Dynamic mechanical analyser for soft materials); Compositional characterization: (energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Inorganic content evaluation)
Questions to test your understanding
Principles of sample preparation for optical metallography; Observation of macrostructures; Solidification of metals and alloys, observing solidification structures; Studying cast, work hardened, annealed, and recrystallized microstructure; Study of different types of Eutectic, and Eutectoid structures; Heat treatment of different plain carbon steels, and their microstructures and hardness; Microstructures of non-ferrous alloys (AL-Si, Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn); Hardenability measurement – Jominy End Quench test; Grain size measurement and quantitative microstructural analysis.
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