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Biosynthesis of phenolic acids.

N2 - A methodological approach to phenolic profiling making extensive use of LC-MS with extracted ion chromatograms was applied to extracts of five different olive tissues: pulp, seed, stone, new-season leaves, and old-season leaves. Tissue extracts of the cultivars Hardy's Mammoth, Corregiola, Verdale, and Manzanillo were analyzed by HPLC with UV and ESI MS detection. Chromatograms of samples of green Hardy's Mammoth drupes, a uniquely Australian olive cultivar, were dominated by a large, broad peak. This peak was not attributable to oleuropein, which is usually the dominant phenolic compound in green olive fruit, but the phenolic compound I. This compound was isolated by semipreparative HPLC and characterized by 1D- and 2D-NMR. Extraction studies showed that the compound was not likely to be an artifact of an enzymatic degradation process. Tritium labeling studies were used to establish a possible relationship between the biosynthesis of I and oleuropein.

Isolation of phenolic compounds.

University of Texas, August 2017
Curcumin combined with other nutrients has anti-cancer properties. The researchers first tested 142 natural compounds on mouse and human cell lines to see which inhibited prostate cancer cell growth when administered alone or in combination with another nutrient. The most promising active ingredients were then tested on model animals: ursolic acid, a waxy natural chemical found in apple peels and rosemary; curcumin, the bright yellow plant compound in turmeric; and resveratrol, a natural compound common to red grapes or berries. “These nutrients have potential anti-cancer properties and are readily available,” says Tiziani. “We only need to increase concentration beyond levels found in a healthy diet for an effect on prostate cancer cells.” The new research paper also demonstrates how the plant-based chemicals work together. Combining ursolic acid with either curcumin or resveratrol prevents cancer cells from gobbling something that they need to grow, glutamine. This is a neat solution: blocking the uptake of a nutrient needed by prostate cancer cells with nutrients that are commonly in the human diet.

Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Compounds in …

Natural News, August 2017
A report in the British Medical Journal illustrates how a woman has beaten blood cancer with the help of turmeric. In 2007, 67-year-old Dieneke Ferguson was diagnosed with myeloma and she progressed to stage three within 15 months. Three failed rounds of chemotherapy and four failed stem cell transplants later, doctors told her she had very little hope. Four years after her initial diagnosis, she took matters into her own hands and started taking a daily dose of curcumin, the key component of turmeric. She took eight grams every evening on an empty stomach.
Since then, her cancer has stabilized and her blood counts have returned to normal. The BMJ report says that Ferguson’s results suggest that turmeric could be used to help myeloma patients in the future, adding: “The fact that our patient, who had advanced stage disease and was effectively salvaged while exclusively on curcumin, suggests a potential antimyeloma effect of curcumin.” No other possible explanation for her recovery. The report’s co-author, Jamie Cavenagh, said that there is no other possible explanation for her remarkable recovery beyond the curcumin. She continues to take the tablets to this day. The scientists are recommending further evaluation in clinical trials to pursue the possibility of using it as an official treatment. This could prove difficult, however, because doctors cannot prescribe it until it has been tested in wide-scale trials that cost millions. Natural compounds cannot be patented, so finding an investor would be extremely difficult.

British Medical Journal, August 2017
Here, we describe a myeloma patient who started a daily dietary supplement of curcumin when approaching her third relapse. In the absence of further antimyeloma treatment, the patient plateaued and has remained stable for the last 5 years with good quality of life. Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from the perennial herb Curcuma longa (turmeric) and has, for centuries, been used as a traditional Indian medicine. Several reports published over the two decades have claimed various health benefits of curcumin and this has led to its increasing popularity as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat a number of different diseases. The biological activity of curcumin is indeed remarkable. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule which possesses natural antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and analgesic properties. More recently, it has demonstrated antiproliferative effects in a wide variety of tumour cells including myeloma cells and exerts its antiproliferative effects through multiple cellular targets that regulate cell growth and survival.

Identification of phenolic compounds in the tissues of …

Science Trends, November 2017
It has been suggested that the compound curcumin helps the immune system destroy amyloid plaque, reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines. In doing so, brain function deterioration is reduced, slowing down the development of Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological studies have looked at the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and have demonstrated that regular consumption has reduced other cognitive deficits in the elderly. Over the years curcumin has been a main focus for research regarding its strong anti-tumor effects. In fact, several preclinical trials have demonstrated curcumin to have both chemopreventive and anti-tumor effects against certain types of cancer. This naturally occurring polyphenolic compound recently has shown promise as a dietary therapy for pancreatic cancer. Of course, it shouldn't be thought of as a primary means for treating cancer, but it may reduce tumor promotion and minimize the spread of cancer. Turmeric has anti-inflammatory abilities containing more than two dozen compounds which may help relieve osteoarthritis pain. Again, it’s the compound curcumin that works as an anti-inflammatory agent. Clinical studies have found that curcumin provided protection to joint inflammation in individuals with osteoarthritis. Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, inflammatory bowel disease causing inflammation in the digestive tract. The disease tends to flare up and subside at random. Studies have shown people with ulcerative colitis who took curcumin had a significantly lower relapse rate than people who did not take curcumin. A meta-analysis showed curcumin had a high effect in reducing symptoms of depression, such as irritable mood, reduced interest in pleasurable activities, fatigue or feelings of worthlessness. The analysis suggests that curcumin could possibly have a role in treating the symptoms of major depression.

Journal of Biological Chemistry, November 2017
The spice turmeric, with its active polyphenol curcumin, has been used as anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. Many cellular targets of curcumin have been identified, but how such a wide range of targets can be affected by a single compound is unclear. We conclude that the paradigm of metabolic bioactivation uncovered here should be considered for the evaluation and design of clinical trials of curcumin and other polyphenols of medicinal interest.

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Identification of phenolic compounds ..

Oxford University Press, December 2017
Over the past few decades, curcumin, a common food additive, has been identified as a potential anti-inflmmatory and anti-cancer compound. Curcumin is a phenolic compound extracted from the Curcuma longa plant, and was traditionally used as a spice for improving flavor and color into dishes of various Asian countries. Curcumin’s health benefits are not a new or surprising finding — the brightly colored compound has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties — but the fundamental mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer potential still remain an active area of interrogation. Intriguingly, curcumin has been shown to sensitize multiple cancers to chemotherapy drugs, and several recent studies have reported that curcumin is able to specifically target cancer stem cells. . As suggested by other groups, not only did we demonstrate that curcumin was able to enhance the sensitivity of gemcitabine in these resistant cells, we found that curcumin was also able to inhibit the growth of cancer stem cells. In our study, we also discovered that curcumin was regulating a class of non-coding RNA called “long non-coding RNAs” (lncRNAs). LncRNA is a relatively newly discovered type of non-coding RNA — RNA which does not make protein — found to be dysregulated in most cancers. We discovered that curcumin inhibits the expression of one of the most well-known lncRNA-based oncogenes, a gene that drives cancer, called PVT1. This lncRNA drives tumor progression through the regulation of another well-recognized oncogene, called EZH2. EZH2 is one of the oncogenes known to be involved in drug resistance and is identified to be a potential drug-able target. Though the generation of specific EZH2 inhibitors remains challenging, the findings from our study indicate that curcumin could be used to inhibit the expression of EZH2, as well as the non-coding RNA that regulates EZH2. Considering that curcumin is a commonly available health supplement, it presents itself as a non-toxic compound and incredibly cost-effective compound for the potential treatment of cancer patients.

in depth understanding of the phenolic compounds biosynthesis.

Hindustan Times, December 2017
Turmeric is a root that is as popular as ginger in Ayurveda. Many of its beneficial aspects are due to its active compound, curcumin. Curcumin has a profoundly anti-inflammatory effect on the body, and provides a good defence system against diseases. Inflammation is the body’s reaction to toxic elements in our environment, such as water with heavy chlorine, air pollution, unhealthy oil (trans fats), stress, lack of sleep, and overuse of chemical aromas, deodorants, cleaning agents, etc.

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