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Most of ADP·glucose linked to starch biosynthesis …

Pentose phosphate pathway
Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a secondary pathway of glucose metabolism, primary being glycolysis. Glucose enters PPP as glucose 6-phosphate. It occurs in the cytosol of tissues active in fatty acid biosynthesis. Those tissues are liver, mammary and adrenal glands and adipose tissue. There are two phases in the pathway: oxidative and non-oxidative. There are four steps involved in oxidative phase, during which glucose-6 phosphate gets converted to ribose 5-phosphate. In the non-oxidative phase, transaldolase and transketolase enzymes catalyze the reversible reactions for the regeneration of glucose 6-phosphate.

Schematic representation of serine (Ser) biosynthesis in plants and connecting metabolic pathways

Gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogenesis is a process of biosynthesis of glucose from simpler non carbohydrate precursors such as oxaloacetate or pyruvate. It is a universal pathway in animals, plants, microbes and fungi. It converts pyruvate to glucose (reverse of glycolysis). The irreversible steps of glycolysis are circumvented by four key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. They are pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase.

Biosynthesis of Triterpenoid Saponins in Plants | …

Glycogen synthesis
Glycogen synthesis takes place in the liver and muscle. All the enzymes of glycogen synthesis are located in the cytosol. Activation of glucose takes place followed by the sequential addition of activated glucose units by glycogen synthase. A brancher enzyme creates alpha 1-6 linkage.

Glyoxylate cycle
Glyoxylate cycle is a variant of TCA cycle and occurs in bacteria and glyoxysomes of plants. It bypasses decarboxylations of citric acid cycle and allows net synthesis of glucose from acetyl CoA.

Flavonoid biosynthesis in plants: genes and enzymes

Starch synthesis
Starch is synthesized in the chloroplasts of plants with the help of enzymes ADP-glucose phosphorylase and starch synthase.

Disaccharide synthesis
Lactose is synthesized in lactating mammary glands of animals with the help of enzyme lactose synthase. Lactose is made up of galactose and glucose. Sucrose is synthesized in plants.

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Glycogen Biosynthesis; Glycogen Breakdown

Glucose constitutes a universal energy‐providing molecule. It is the primary fuel substance for a wide array of organisms from bacteria to man. Its great utility as an energy source is that it can be oxidised for the production of the high energy molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), even in the absence of oxygen. Within humans, certain tissues, in particular red blood cells, derive all of their energy from the anaerobic oxidation of glucose. The human brain prefers glucose for energy and consumes the largest percentage of glucose on a daily basis. For these reasons the consumption of glucose or glucose containing sugars, such as sucrose, is important for life processes. Given the importance of glucose, it is not surprising that organisms store this carbohydrate for easy access for ATP production. Storage of glucose is in the form of a polymer composed of long linear chains and occasional branched chains termed glycogen in animals and starch in plants. Due to its highly important role in cellular viability, glucose storage and utilisation in humans is stringently controlled by hormones and neurotransmitters.

Tuscany Diet - Biochemistry and Nutrition

Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a secondary pathway of glucose metabolism, primary being glycolysis. Glucose enters PPP as glucose 6-phosphate. It occurs in the cytosol of tissues active in fatty acid biosynthesis. Those tissues are liver, mammary and adrenal glands and adipose tissue. There are two phases in the pathway: oxidative and non-oxidative. Glyoxylate cycle is a variant of TCA cycle and occurs in bacteria and plants. Gluconeogenesis is a process of biosynthesis of glucose from simpler non carbohydrate precursors such as oxaloacetate or pyruvate. Glucose is stored in the body in the form of glycogen. Glycogen synthesis takes place in the liver and muscle. Starch and sucrose are synthesized in plants. Lactose is synthesized in lactating mammary glands of animals.

Bioactive Principles from Medicinal Plants - Science Alert

Results showed improvement of IR which can effectively lower plasma glucose and prevent hyperinsulinemia and/or lower the required doses of antidiabetic agents.

Rosal Medicinal Plants - StuartXchange

Starch is a major storage compound in plants that is present both in leaves and in storage tissues. Biochemical and molecular biological data show that ADP-glucose is the glucosyl donor for plant starch synthesis, and its synthesis is catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Subsequently, starch synthases catalyze the transfer of the glucosyl residue from ADP-glucose to the oligosaccharide chains of the starch components amylose and amylopectin to form new α-1,4-glucosidic residues. After elongation of these α-1,4-glucosidic chains, the branching enzyme catalyzes a cleavage of the elongated chain and transfers the cleaved portion of the oligosaccharide chain to either another region in the amylopectin molecule or to a new amylopectin and forms a new α-1,6-glucosidic linkage. Amylose synthesis is catalyzed by the granule-bound starch synthase. Regulation of starch synthesis occurs at the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase step. The enzyme from higher plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria is activated allosterically by 3-phosphoglycerate and inhibited by inorganic phosphate. Isolation of mutants and control analyses indicate that the allosteric activation and inhibition are of physiological and functional importance in the regulation of starch synthesis. Furthermore, evidence indicates that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases can also be regulated by a redox mechanism. The current knowledge of the enzyme structures and critical amino acids necessary for substrate binding, allosteric effector binding, regulation, and catalysis for the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is reviewed.

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