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Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids: ..
More than 20 compounds,different only in the fatty acid structures, have been described.
The sponges contain alsolarge quantities of C14 up to C30 fatty acids with branch as well as odd-chains().
This fatty acid is mainly located in of the chloroplast membranes. Along with some angiosperms, it was shown that the occurrence of 16:3 n-3 is characteristic of prokaryotic organisms such as cyanobacteria, as well as of microalgae, mosses, ferns, conifers, and other eucaryotic plant groups of a lower taxonomic position.
Very long chain (n-3) fatty acids were described in the blubber of seals (Phoca hispida) from northern fresh or seawater.
Biosynthesis of Saturated Fatty acids Notes
With a chain length from 2 to 6 (or 4) they are called short-chain, from 8 (or 6) to 10 they are called medium-chain and 12 up to 24 they are called long-chain fatty acids.
The (D)methylmalonyl-CoA is isomerized to succinyl-CoA by Note that this reaction is also used for the degradation of hydrocarbon side chains of the amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine; (S)-methylmalonyl is the same as L-methylmalonyl; from KEGG pathway ) Similarly, unsaturated fatty acids need special enzymes to provide the beta oxidation intermediate trans-D2-enoyl-CoA, the substrate of .
De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Biosynthesis of fatty acids)
Another indication for a sponge cell origin of these compounds is the majorpresence (7-15 % of the total) of -nonadecanoic acid(16-methyloctadecanoic acid), an exotic compound that has not yet been reportedas a major fatty acid in bacteria.
It has been found that is able to synthesizediso-C15 and iso-C17 and that these branched-chain fatty acids are essential forthe animal growth and development ().
As an example, a newstructure (20-methyl-26:0) has been elucidated in the sponge from the Canary islands () while some monomethyl polyunsaturated fatty acids were described indifferent marine sponges (24-methyl-5,9-pentacosadienoic acid or ) () . Similarly, two new 2-methyl branched monoenoicvery long chain fatty acids (2-methyl-24:1 n-7 and 2-methyl-26:1 n-9) weredescribed in a marine sponge ().
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BIOSYNTHESIS of FATTY ACIDS |authorSTREAM
Metabolism1.0 Global and overview maps1.1 Carbohydrate metabolism1.2 Energy metabolism1.3 Lipid metabolism1.4 Nucleotide metabolism1.5 Amino acid metabolism1.6 Metabolism of other amino acids1.7 Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism1.8 Metabolism of cofactors and vitamins1.9 Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides1.10 Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites1.11 Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism1.12 Chemical structure transformation maps
unsaturated fatty acids can block the degradation pathway.
Three types of the dehydrogenase exist in mitochondria; (EC 188.8.131.52; long chain) which oxidizes C12-C18 fatty acids, (EC 184.108.40.206) which oxidizes C4-C14 fatty acids, and (EC 220.127.116.11; butyryl dehydrogenase) which oxidizes C4 and C6 acyl-CoA substrates.
Fatty acid biosynthesis pathway reconstructed based …
Their physical and biological properties are related to this partition in 3 classes.
An extensive review on the biochemical mechanisms of fatty acid elongation may be consulted for further information ().
Fatty acids are simple in structure and even with their derivatives can be subdivided into well-defined families:
Among straight-chain fatty acids, the simplest are referred to as fatty acids.
long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol ..
Lipogenesis is not a simple reversal of beta oxidation, but uses an entirely different pathway for the regeneration of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA precursors.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, biosynthesis, ..
Some uncommon polyunsaturated fatty acids have two adjacent double bonds separated by more than one methylene group, they are named polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids.
In some animals, but mainly in plants and bacteria, fatty acids may be more complex since they can have an odd number of carbon atoms, or contain a variety of other functional groups, including bonds, epoxy-, - or groups and even structures (cyclopropane, cyclopropene, cyclopentene, furan, and cyclohexyl) or a coenzyme A moiety ().
Except fatty acyl-CoA, we have based our of fatty acids first on the type of carbon chain : either straight (or normal), or branched, or containing a carbon ring.
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