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Synthesis and Application of Glycopeptide and Glycoprotein Mimetics.
Cephalosporins have a mechanism of action identical to that of the penicillins. However, the basic chemical structure of the penicillins and cephalosporins differs in other respects, resulting in different spectrum of antibacterial activity. Like the penicillins, cephalosporins have a beta-lactam ring structure that interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall and so are bactericidal. Cephalosporins are derived from cephalosporin C which is produced from .
Tetracycline antibiotics are bacteriostatic agents and work by inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis via interaction with the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Tetracyclines are effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, including spirochetes, atypical bacteria, rickettsia, and amebic parasites.
Synthesis of New Substituted Lactones by "Click" Chemistry.
Penicillins are generally very safe drugs with minimum toxicity. Their most common side effect is diarrhea. Nausea, vomiting, and upset stomach are also common. In rare cases penicillins can cause immediate or delayed allergic reactions which manifest as skin rashes, fever, angioedema, and anaphylactic shock. Severe hypersensitivity reactions are more common after injections than after oral formulations.
The macrolide antibiotics owe their name to a macrocyclic lactone ring in their chemical structure. They are derived from Streptomyces bacteria.
Synthesis of a Benzolactone Collection using Click Chemistry.
Lincomycin and clindamycin are a miscellaneous groupof proteinsynthesis inhibitors with activity similar to the macrolides. Lincomycinhas activity against Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negativebacteria (). Clindamycin is aderivative of lincomycin with the same range of antimicrobialactivity, but it is considered more effective. It is frequently used asa penicillin substitute and is effective against Gram-negativeanaerobes (e.g. ).
The tetracyclines consist of eight related antibiotics whichare all natural products of , although some can nowbe produced semisynthetically or synthetically. Tetracycline, chlortetracyclineand doxycycline are the best known. The tetracyclines arebroad-spectrum antibiotics with a wide range of activity against bothGram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. is less sensitive but is generally susceptible to tetracyclineconcentrations that are obtainable in the bladder. The tetracyclinesact by blocking the binding of aminoacyl tRNA to the A site on theribosome. Tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis on isolated 70S or80S (eucaryotic) ribosomes, and in both cases, their effect is on thesmall ribosomal subunit. However, most bacteria possess an activetransport system for tetracycline that will allow intracellularaccumulation of the antibiotic at concentrations 50 times as great asthat in the medium. This greatly enhances its antibacterialeffectiveness and accounts for its specificity of action, since aneffective concentration cannot be accumulated in animal cells. Thus ablood level of tetracycline which is harmless toanimal tissues can halt protein synthesis in invading bacteria.
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H., His6 tag-assisted chemical protein synthesis.
Importantly, we developed a double diastereoselective and, for the first time, a kinetic resolution via the NCAL process that enables an enantioselective strategy to the tricyclic beta-lactone core of (+)-spongiolactone.
Lactone chemistry. Synthesis of. beta.-substituted,. …
We completed the total synthesis of 6,15-bis-epi-spongiolactone by employing an intramolecular nucleophilecatalyzed aldol-lactonization (NCAL) process as the key step to construct the fused tricyclic beta-lactone core.
Synthesis of Lactones and Lactams - Cyclic Esters & …
Combination of Ring-Opening Polymerization and "Click" Chemistry for the Synthesis of an Amphiphilic Tadpole-Shaped Poly(ε-Caprolactone) Grafted by PEO.
CYCLIC-FUSED BETA-LACTONES AND THEIR SYNTHESIS …
This natural product bears a unique tricyclic beta-lactone core possessing four contiguous stereogenic centers and an additional stereogenic quaternary carbon on a cyclohexyl appendage.
organic chemistry - Beta lactone query - Chemistry …
Additionally, we pursued synthetic studies toward the total synthesis of spongiolactone, which is a unique beta-lactone-containing marine diterpenoid, isolated from the marine sponge Spongionella gracilis.
Why aren't beta lactones formed
B., Synthesis of azide-alkyne fragments for click' chemical applications; formation of oligomers from orthogonally protected trialkylsilyl-propargyl azides and propargyl alcohols.
Recent Developments in-Lactone Synthesis (PDF …
The inhibitory activities of the derived beta-lactam derivatives are determined in a biochemical fluorogenic assay using recombinant FASTE, and the micro-molar range FAS-TE inhibitory activities were observed.
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