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In download Humanism and Behaviorism
Introduction to River Science, Introduction to geomorphic concepts: threshold, sensitivity, connectivity, hierarchy and complexity. River basin approach: Sediment source and catchment erosion processes, Transition between hillslope and fluvial processes, Longitudinal river profiles, Sediment load and sediment yield, Sediment and nutrient transport process in rivers, Erosion and sedimentation processes in channel, Geochemical proxies to study sediment dynamics in a river basin. Drainage Network: Quantitative analysis, Role of drainage network in flux transfer, 3-dimensional connectivity in a river basin, Hydrological response of a river basin, Processes in confluence zones, Evolution of drainage network. River processes and morphology: River fluxes, energy distribution and patterns of alluvial rivers - braided, meandering and anabranching channels; Hydrological, sedimentological and ecological characteristics and their interrelationship in different channel patterns; Dynamics of alluvial rivers; Different classification approaches in fluvial geomorphology and its applications. Glacio-fluvial interaction: Sources of water in river system, Hydrological budgeting in the glaciated mountainous region, Spatial variability of glacial melt component in the Himalaya. Bedrock channels: Stream Power law and Bedrock incision process; River response to climate, tectonics and human disturbance; Quantitative analysis of bedrock channel processes and evolution of fluvial landscapes. Stream Management: Fluvial hazards and their causes, Humans and rivers, Ecosystem based approach to stream management, Concept of river health, Environmental Flow (e-flow) – definition, data requirement, different approaches for e-flow estimation.
Information Processing Approach
The advent of the modern digital computer provided a rich theoretical metaphor for theorizing about human information processing. The information processing architecture of computers strongly framed much early thinking in modern cognitive psychology.
Cognitive psychologists have spent a lot of effort developing accounts of mechanisms that control information processing (Barsalou, 1992). The cognitive theories propose constructs describing information processing mechanisms. The questions about how humans process information, pick up information from the environment, store information in memory, retrieve information from memory, and send information back to the environment are under investigation. People, like computers, acquire information from the environment. Both people and computers store information and retrieve it when applicable to current tasks; both are limited in the amount of information they can process at a given time; both transform information to produce new information; both return information to the environment. Research projects frequently aim at verifying and articulating this theoretical perspective (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Broadbent, 1958; Newell & Simon, 1972).
difference between behaviorism and humanism ..
"The addition of a fourth life [form of happiness] should underscore that we are trying to describe, not prescribe, what people actually do to achieve well being (see below). Adding the fourth life in no way endorses this life nor do we suggest that you should divert your own path to well being to win more. Rather we include it to describe human approach behavior more comprehensively" (Jayawickreme, Pawelski, & Seligman, 2009, p. 14).
"Some of us seem to be thinking that our subject matter itself (people) is generally positive or admirable. This brings us to a second possible understanding of the 'positive' within positive psychology: that the scientist's subject matter is inherently good, desirable, or valuable (relative to an opposing perspective, that the subject matter might be inherently bad, undesirable, or not valuable)" . . . "It seems to me that this is where positive psychology is most vulnerable to going wrong, as the belief that humans are more good than bad could be a self-serving illusion or an ideological bias that clouds or completely blocks our view of half of human nature (i.e., the not-so-good part)" (Sheldon, 2011, p. 422).
What Is the Unconscious Mind? - Verywell
McKnight, P. E., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Purpose in life as a system that creates and sustains health and well–being: An integrative, testable theory. , (3), 242–251. doi:10.1037/a0017152 Purpose—a cognitive process that defines life goals and provides personal meaning—may help explain disparate empirical social science findings. Devoting effort and making progress toward life goals provides a significant, renewable source of engagement and meaning. Purpose offers a testable, causal system that synthesizes outcomes including life expectancy, satisfaction, and mental and physical health. These outcomes may be explained best by considering the motivation of the individual—a motivation that comes from having a purpose. We provide a detailed definition with specific hypotheses derived from a synthesis of relevant findings from social, behavioral, biological, and cognitive literatures. To illustrate the uniqueness of the purpose model, we compared purpose with competing contemporary models that offer similar predictions. Addressing the structural features unique to purpose opens opportunities to build upon existing causal models of "how and why" health and well–being develop and change over time.
Massimini, F., & Delle Fave, A. (2000). Individual development in a bio–cultural perspective [Special issue]. , (1), 24–33. doi:10.1037//0003–066X.55.l.24. Biological and cultural inheritance deeply influence daily human behavior. However, individuals actively interact with bio–cultural information. Throughout their lives, they preferentially cultivate a limited subset of activities, values, and personal interests. This process, defined as psychological selection, is strictly related to the quality of subjective experience. Specifically, cross–cultural studies have highlighted the central role played by optimal experience or flow, the most positive and complex daily experience reported by the participants. It is characterized by high involvement, deep concentration, intrinsic motivation, and the perception of high challenges matched by adequate personal skills. The associated activities represent the basic units of psychological selection. Flow can therefore influence the selective transmission of bio–cultural information and the process of bio–cultural evolution.
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Existential-Humanistic Psychology and Mindfulness and Global Change.
Muse, L., Harris, S. G., Giles, W. F., & Feild, H. S. (2008). Work–life benefits and positive organizational 192. doi:10.1002/job.506. Focusing on the employee well–being component of positive organizational behavior (POB), this study explores the relationship between organization provided benefit programs and POB. Specifically, we ask the question: are employees' use and perceived value of a work–life benefit package associated with their positive attitudes and behaviors in the workplace? Grounded in social exchange theory and the norm of reciprocity, we develop and estimate a model identifying differential relationships of benefit use and perceived benefit value with employee attitudinal and performance outcomes. Employing the multigroup method, the hypothesized model was fit to the data of two dissimilar organizations. Results support our hypothesis that providing work–life benefits employees use and/or value is part of a positive exchange between the employee and employer. This exchange is positively related to employees' feelings of perceived organizational support and affective commitment to the organization and reciprocation in the form of higher levels of task and contextual performance behaviors. Results also revealed that employees' perceptions of benefit program value play a critical role regardless of actual program use in influencing attitudes and behavior. Our findings emphasize the importance of valuing employees and investing in their well–being inside as well as outside the workplace.
Courses of Study | IIT Gandhinagar
Lester, P. B., McBride, S., Bliese, P. D., & Adler, A. B. (2011). Bringing science to bear: An empirical assessment of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program. , (1), 77–81. doi:10.1037/a0022083This article outlines the U.S. Army's effort to empirically validate and assess the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. The empirical assessment includes four major components. First, the CSF scientific staff is currently conducting a longitudinal study to determine if the Master Resilience Training program and the Comprehensive Resilience Modules lead to lasting resilience development in soldiers. Second, the CSF program has partnered with other researchers to conduct a series of longitudinal studies examining the link between physiological, neurobiological, and psychological resilience factors. Third, the CSF program is also incorporating institutional–level data to determine if its material influences health, behavioral, and career outcomes. Fourth, group randomized trials are being conducted to ensure that resilience training incorporated under the CSF program is effective with soldiers. A specific rationale and methodologies are discussed.
CGCE Spring 2018 Course Offerings | Westfield State …
Leontiev, D. (2006). Positive personality development: Approaching personal autonomy. In M. Csikszentmihalyi, & I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds.), (p. 49–61). New York, NY: Oxford. The concept of positive personality development refers to both the direction of developmental processes and to their qualitative contents. An objective criterion of development is the degree to which one approaches and uses specifically human capacities and potentialities rather than subhuman ones. One may speak of progressive emancipation as the general direction of this process and personal autonomy as its goal. The two theoretical models described in this chapter explain why human development so often deviates from a positive direction. The multiregulation personality model accounts for the variety of behavior regulation mechanisms in humans, and the developmental autodetermination model, explains both successes and failures in becoming the master of one's own life. Positive personality development leads to personal autonomy, meaning, and happiness; however, it also presupposes effort, responsibility, and risk taking––both on the part of the psychologists and on the part of their clients and research participants.
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