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A neural plasticity hypothesis of schizophrenia.

These experiments tested a prediction of the ‘challenge hypothesis’ that, during periods of social instability, male androgen levels are higher than during socially stable times.

cognitive, social and affective neuroscience, Theory of Mind, brain plasticity

Two other biological traits also facilitate the building of armies. One is an admirable trait, altruism in the form of willingness to defend or rescue other individuals of the group, even possibly at the risk of one's own life. There are many examples of humans doing this not only for family members but for members of their group, or for the group itself, which may not be composed of close relatives at all.

The Adaptive Neuroplasticity Hypothesis of Behavioral …

As we progressively understand the evolutionary bases of variability, new concepts emerge in the literature.

AB - Kralj-Fiser et al. recently reviewed the lack of evidence in favor of the aggressive spillover hypothesis, an animal personality/behavioral syndrome explanation for pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. In doing so, they evaluated past tests of the hypothesis, set forth their ideas for criteria that need to be met to accept the spillover hypothesis, and conclude that the hypothesis is not generally supported. Here, I comment on several aspects of their position. In doing so, I identify areas in which we differ and point out several strengths of past tests of the spillover hypothesis. In particular, I suggest that researchers testing the spillover hypothesis have done an excellent job of studying sexual cannibalism in the broader context of a movement within behavioral ecology to understand where an animal's behavior falls along a continuum of plasticity.

Ian is generally interested in evolutionary genetics and speciation. He joined the Kronauer lab in 2012, where he uses population genetics to study a hybrid population of army ants in Kenya. Ian graduated from the University of Chicago in 2009 with a B.A. in biology with honors where he studied the process of speciation in the Drosophila melanogaster species group as an undergraduate. Before joining the Kronauer lab, Ian worked for three years as a tech in labs at the University of Chicago and Harvard.

The adaptive neuroplasticity hypothesis of behavioral maintenance

The biological view of the Five-factor theory proposes the plaster hypothesis: All personality traits stop changing by age 30.

McKenzie, S. K., Oxley, P. R., Kronauer, D. J. C. (2014): Comparative genomics and transcriptomics in ants provide new insights into the evolution and function of odorant binding and chemosensory proteins. BMC Genomics 15: 718.

This paper will focus on the maladaptive neural pathways that lead to increased risk of adverse outcomes among people with CHD. We will (1) describe the great potential of neuroplasticity in older adults; (2) review stress and depression as examples of maladaptive neuroplasticity; (3) describe an example of adaptive neuroplasticity achieved with a behavioral intervention that induced positive affect in people with CHD; and (4) discuss implications for future work in bench to bedside translational research.

In 5 studies, the authors investigated various hypotheses concerning the nature of normality evaluations.
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intriguing hypothesis: replacement of old neurons

Part of phenotypic variation, for example, is due to plastic adjustments of the individual, and only recently has this kind of internal variability become important for evolutionary biology.For behaviour, plasticity is one major source of variability, and this research area has been growing exponentially over the last decades ( Fig.

hypothesis driven research on the causes of ..

A study that randomized people with an indication for coronary angioplasty to exercise alone versus coronary angioplasty found that not only did the people who exercised have significantly fewer major adverse clinical events over two years (22% versus 38%, P = 0.039), but they also had significant reductions in C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels []. These findings suggest that physical activity plays an important role in reducing inflammation, which may be one pathway by which physical activity exerts its protective effects. In this manner, physical activity may act on inflammatory mediators of stress and depression and promote adaptive neuroplastic changes to the brain.

the evolution of adaptive plasticity may be inhibited ..

Part of phenotypic variation, for example, is due to plastic adjustments of the individual, and only recently has this kind of internal variability become important for evolutionary biology.For behaviour, plasticity is one major source of variability, and this research area has been growing exponentially over the last decades ( Fig.

Behavioral plasticity - Wikipedia

Buck wishes to use ants to advance the study of evolutionary genetics. During his undergraduate, he worked with Ken Ross and Dietrich Gotzek to study the genetic basis of social polymorphism in fire ants. He also worked with Patrick Stephens and John Gittleman to test macroevolutionary theories of ant species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Currently he is working to develop the Cas/CRISPR genome engineering platform in the species Cerapachys biroi, which he hopes to use to describe the genetic architecture that allowed worker/queen caste determination to evolve in ants..

Behavioural plasticity: an interaction between evolution ..

Translation of successes from basic behavioral science to high-risk, clinically ill patient groups has not traditionally been employed and holds great potential to motivate initiation and maintenance of behavior change and, in turn, improve long-term health outcomes. For example, induction of positive affect has demonstrated the ability to motivate both increased physical activity and improved medication adherence in two studies of chronic disease [, ]. Given their potential potency, the application of such approaches to motivate physical activity may also stimulate adaptive neuroplastic changes that can support long-term physical activity maintenance. One barrier to translational behavioral science has been the absence of a standardized approach to translate basic behavioral and social science research to the study and treatment of patients with chronic disease. To this end, we have recently developed EVOLVE, which is a mixed methods and staged approach for this purpose []. While generalizing from animal models to humans is always complicated, this new frontier of behavioral medicine holds great promise because it begins to adopt the neurobiologic concepts of adaptive neuroplasticity in its application to behavioral change in chronic disease.

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