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The isolated dendrites also exhibitedprotein synthesis.

N2 - In this issue of Neuron, Zhang and Poo present evidence for localized BDNF-induced synaptic potentiation that is accompanied by spatially restricted calcium influx and requires local axonal protein synthesis. These results are consistent with a synapse-specific role for BDNF and provide a potentially novel way to think about cellular mechanisms for potentiation of neurotransmitter release.

“There was early evidence that protein-synthesis machinery waspresent in dendrites,” said Schuman.

Osterweil EK, Krueger DD, Reinhold K and Bear MF (2010) Hypersensitivity to mGluR5 and ERK1/2 leads to excessive protein synthesis in the hippocampus of a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. Journal of Neuroscience 30(46): 15616–15627.

A Requirement for Local Protein Synthesis in …

This, too, indicated that protein synthesis wasoccurring in the dendrites.

In a series ofexperiments, the scientists inserted the protein synthesis reporter into ratneurons in culture, and then triggered protein synthesis using a growth factorcalled BDNF.

Here we demonstrate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signals the Src-dependent phosphorylation of the β-actin mRNA zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1), which is necessary for β-actin synthesis and growth cone turning.

that local synthesis of dendritic BDNF and dendritic ..

Intriguingly, saidSchuman, hot spots of protein synthesis were observed within the dendrites.

But using this protein synthesis reporter, we mightuncover similar functional domains in the dendrites of these different cellsthat we wouldn’t see if we were just recording from their cell bodies,” shesaid.

Casadio A, Martin KC, Giustetto M et al. (1999) A transient, neuron‐wide form of CREB‐mediated long‐term facilitation can be stabilized at specific synapses by local protein synthesis. Cell 99(2): 221–237.

Protein molecules are continuously synthesised and degraded in all living organisms.
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Local protein synthesis, actin dynamics, and LTP ..

Neurons exhibit extensive and compartmentalised arbours of axons and dendrites, which place unique demands on the timing and location of protein synthesis.

protein synthesis | Journal of Cell Science

Growth cones are specialised structures that guide developing axons and dendrites to their targets. Extracellular guidance cues regulate local protein synthesis in growth cones to guide axons and dendrites to their destination.

Protein Synthesis in Neurons - eLS: Essential for Life …

N2 - We have examined the influence of glutamate on cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Kainic acid (KA) produced an upregulation of hippocampal and neocortical BDNF mRNA as well as BDNF protein that was blocked by a non-NMDA antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), but was not affected by the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7). Basal levels of BDNF mRNA were not affected by NMDA, DNQX, or AP7 treatment. BDNF protein was also increased after kainate exposure with a spatial and temporal course distinct from that seen for the expression of BDNF mRNA. A dramatic shift in BDNF immunoreactivity (-IR) was observed from intracellular compartments to the neuropil surrounding CA3 pyramidal cells 2- 3 hr after KA exposure. This shift in localization of BDNF-IR suggests a constitutive release of BDNF at the level of the cell body and dendrites. Moreover, we have localized mRNAs for full-length and truncated trkB, to a coincident population of neurons and glia. These data suggest the neurons that produce BDNF also express components necessary for a biological response to the same neurotrophic factor. The present study also demonstrates increased BDNF-IR in the mossy fiber terminal zone of hippocampus after exposure to KA, as well as an increase in trkB mRNA, and provides evidence of local release of this neurotrophin into the surrounding neuropil where it would be available for local utilization. The synthesis and putative release of BDNF from somatic and/or dendritic sites within the hippocampus provide evidence of a potential autocrine or paracrine role for BDNF, and establish a local source of trophic support for the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and anatomic reorganization in the mature nervous system.

by the local protein synthesis at the ..

AB - We have examined the influence of glutamate on cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Kainic acid (KA) produced an upregulation of hippocampal and neocortical BDNF mRNA as well as BDNF protein that was blocked by a non-NMDA antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), but was not affected by the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7). Basal levels of BDNF mRNA were not affected by NMDA, DNQX, or AP7 treatment. BDNF protein was also increased after kainate exposure with a spatial and temporal course distinct from that seen for the expression of BDNF mRNA. A dramatic shift in BDNF immunoreactivity (-IR) was observed from intracellular compartments to the neuropil surrounding CA3 pyramidal cells 2- 3 hr after KA exposure. This shift in localization of BDNF-IR suggests a constitutive release of BDNF at the level of the cell body and dendrites. Moreover, we have localized mRNAs for full-length and truncated trkB, to a coincident population of neurons and glia. These data suggest the neurons that produce BDNF also express components necessary for a biological response to the same neurotrophic factor. The present study also demonstrates increased BDNF-IR in the mossy fiber terminal zone of hippocampus after exposure to KA, as well as an increase in trkB mRNA, and provides evidence of local release of this neurotrophin into the surrounding neuropil where it would be available for local utilization. The synthesis and putative release of BDNF from somatic and/or dendritic sites within the hippocampus provide evidence of a potential autocrine or paracrine role for BDNF, and establish a local source of trophic support for the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and anatomic reorganization in the mature nervous system.

Glutamate Stimulates Local Protein Synthesis in the …

In the adult brain, neurons rapidly communicate through specialised contacts called synapses. The strength of communication at a synapse can be modified as a function of its past use. These changes are mediated, in part, by the local protein synthesis at the synapse.

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