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The Rise of China as a Global Power

As the new century unfolds, in all probability so will China's prospects unfold as a global power, not just a regional one. Consider once again China's contemporary dimensions - an enormous country with the world's largest population and military establishment. Its economy is among the world's fastest growing. It is expected to become the largest by the year 2025 (by PPP calculations).(39) Historically, too, it is imbued with greatness. Along with India, it is one of the two great civilisations of Asia. While India could rival China in the dimensions of greatness, China has had a head start. In terms of world powers, one cannot forget that an innovative America, an integrating Europe, and possibly a revitalising Russia, are also contenders. Viewed from a 'society of states' perspective, that is, a system intent on preserving itself, contention is matched with concerting behaviour. Great powers - indeed global powers with unprecedented economic and security interdependence - must concert together as much as compete. The world no longer operates, if ever it did, as a zero-sum game. In this sense, China's rise may be seen as an asset in world terms. One need only contemplate the fall of China - by its own hand or another's - to appreciate this perspective. History has already demonstrated the latter proposition to be plausible. The international system is thus better served when rise of China becomes probable.

The Pursuit of Great Power Legitimacy

19. The ancient Greeks sought human harmony through a balance of appetite, spirit, and reason. As Lebow notes, 'Thucydides, Plato, and Aristotle considered the principle of balance equally applicable to states, and they attributed civil disorder to psychological imbalance within the political culture of the polis." If appetite may be equated with economy, and reason with international law and justice, what of spirit? Returning to Lebow, spirit 'manifested in the competitive quest for recognition, understood to be the basis for self-esteem'. This is often rendered as 'honour', a quality that requires a social recognition. 'It was often conferred by others, as was in ancient Greece and as is great power today.' (Richard Ned Lebow, 'Constructive Realism', , Vol. 6, No. 2, June 2004, pp. 346-348.) As to virtue, this is an ancient Chinese ideal par excellence. For the Chinese the word for virtue and power is , as in the Daoist classic, the , meaning the Book of the Way and its Power/Virtue, also known as the Lao Tzu (the leading Daoist philosophy to whom the is attributed). Virtue is thus seen as a legitimate or ethically-based power. By the same token, ethical bahaviour is potent with power - it constitutes legitimacy. In Chinese traditional thought the balance sought is between yin and yang - between soft and hard power. This balance is not in equal measure of both but with civil () or soft power leading over martial () or hard power elements. Thus the ideal balance would be regarded, by way of illustration, as three parts yin and two parts yang.

Reiki Crystals - The Stones of Power

For this reason, the balancing process helps to maintain the stability of relations between states.

Thus, the foreign policies of peripheral states are typically framed and implemented in such a way that the national interest is defined in terms of development, confrontation with great powers is avoided, and autonomy is not understood as freedom of action but rather in terms of the costs of using that freedom.

In particular, there is a sharp disagreement between proponents of the balance-of-power tradition (John Mearsheimer, Eric Labs, Fareed Zakaria, Kier Lieber, and Christopher Layne) and proponents of the security variant of hegemonic stability theory (Robert Gilpin, William Wohlforth, and Stephen Brooks).

The Rise of China as a Global Power - International …

A weakness of the balance of power concept is the difficulty of measuring power.

War, in the idealistic view, is now no longer considered by either elites or the populace of the great powers as being a plausible way of achieving goals, as the costs of war, even for the victor, exceed the benefits.

Idealists believe strongly in the affective power of ideas, in that it is possible to base a political system primarily on morality, and that the baser and more selfish impulses of humans can be muted in order to build national and international norms of behavior that foment peace, prosperity, cooperation, and justice.

intended as a replacement for the system commonly known as thebalance-of-power' (1984:247).
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The Rise of China as a Global Power by Dr Rosita Dellios

Modern societies allocated their collective laborforces inefficiently, wasting talented but poor people in humble positions andsuffering from the inept sons of the privileged in powerful positions.

American Rhetoric: The Power of Oratory in the United …

...these things assure notthat the best and the brightest will be selected for powerful positions butthat much of society’s potential talent will go un-utilized.

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The findings have been praised by many, published in scientific journals and magazines, cited repeatedly, but in largest measure have been willfully censored out of the discussion by most within the editorial power-circles of modern academics and mainstream journalism, which continues to embrace the flawed and disproven theories of "violent genes" or other "original sin" concepts.

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