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Autism and clostridium tetani, Medical Hypotheses | …
Van Krevelen (1971) and Wolff & Barlow (1979) agreed with Asperger that his syndrome should be differentiated from autism. They differ in their accounts of the distinguishing features and the impression gained from their papers is that, although there are some differences, the syndromes are more alike than unalike. The variations could be explained on the basis of the severity of the impairments, though the authors quoted above would not agree with this hypothesis. Thus the autistic child, at least when young, is aloof and indifferent to others, whereas the child with Asperger syndrome is passive or makes inappropriate one-sided approaches. The former is mute or has delayed and abnormal speech, whereas the latter learns to speak with good grammar and vocabulary (though he may, when young, reverse pronouns), but the content of his speech is inappropriate for the social context and he has problems with understanding complex meanings. Non-verbal communication is severely impaired in both conditions. In autism, in the early years, there may be no use of gesture to communicate. In Asperger syndrome there tends to be inappropriate use of gesture to accompany speech. In both conditions, monotonous or peculiar vocal intonation is characteristic. The autistic child develops stereotyped, repetitive routines involving objects or people (for example, arranging toys and household objects in specific abstract patterns, or insisting that everyone in a room should cross the right leg over the left), whereas the person with Asperger syndrome becomes immersed in mathematical abstractions, or amassing facts on his special interests. Abnormal responses to sensory input - including indifference, distress and fascination - are characteristic of early childhood autism and form the basis of the theories of perceptual inconstancy put forward by Ornitz & Ritvo (1968) and of over-selectivity of attention suggested by Lovaas et al (1971). These features are associated with greater severity of handicap, and lower mental age. They are not described as typical of Asperger syndrome, and they are rarely seen in older autistic people with intelligence quotients in the normal range.
This is best done at a child development unit because the expertise of a variety of disciplines is required and a team approach has been found to result in more accurate diagnosis. Assessment of suspected autism entails the parents providing a review of the family history, the pregnancy and the child's behaviour and developmental progress. A physical examination is required to determine any underlying medical conditions contributing to deviations and/or delays in expected developmental progress.
The Medical Treatment of Autism Disorders | InTechOpen
When problems occur in all these three spheres of development, and at a deeper level than the usual variations expected in ordinary children, the distinctive pattern of autism becomes evident. In the past there has been confusion over terminology, but experts now consider that children with the triad of impairments should come under the umbrella diagnosis of "autism spectrum disorders" 2,3, which should prompt further in-depth diagnosis. Gillberg2 suggests that the diagnosis of autism should specify additional features such as severity, cognitive level, clinical traits and associated medical conditions.
As it later turned out, Bettleheim’s book was one of the last gasps of the “refrigerator mother “ hypothesis. Although many other authors subsequently argued that is was valid to blame parents (especially the mother) for autism, it was a doomed cause. Although a few people, and even a few medical professionals, still blame autism on maternal lack of affection, the growing volume of data supporting a biological cause clearly refutes this. However, other potentially dangerous "blame-the-parent" notions have arisen. According to these, parents are responsible for their children’s autism in two ways:
The Medical Treatment of Autism Disorders | InTechOpen ..
"No longer are there hopes for the child to accomplishall that the parents could not accomplish; no medical school, noacademic scholar." Due to the stress of raising anautistic child Suzanne and her husband sought counseling for sixmonths and have now learned to work through all of the emotions andresponsibilities of having a special child together.
Surveys of U.S. parental opinion conducted for the American Medical Association in 2006 and 2008 show growing concern about the safety of vaccines. A study done by APCO Insight found that about 18 percent of parents had changed their vaccination practices out of safety concerns—compared with 12 percent in 2006. There's hope that today's ruling will reverse that trend. It won't affect the true believers. The notion that a government-backed, pharmaceutical-company-enriching program damaged their children has become a crusade and hobby and hangout for thousands of people, including movie stars like Jenny McCarthy and Jim Carrey, as well as doctors, lawyers, businessmen, and even a few scientists. An industry of hucksters, personal-injury lawyers, and clueless alternative-medicine practitioners has fed off of the desperation of parents of autistic children. Many parents, frantic to alter their children's diagnosis, turn to untested drugs, foods, vitamins, and extracts that promise to halt, or even reverse, autism—promising claims that some parents cling to.
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The etiology of autism remains a medical ..
The Act also created the Office of Special Masters within the Court of Federal Claims. The Special Masters function as trial judges with final decision-making authority. Their rulings can be appealed to the Court on an “arbitrary and capricious” standard, with further review available through higher federal courts. The VICP is funded by a 75¢-per-dose excise tax that goes into a trust that covers awards and administrative costs. The program provides compensation for past and future medical expenses; rehabilitation; therapies; special education; equipment; placement; pain and suffering ($250,000 limit); lost earnings; and vaccine-related death ($250,000).
There’s a lot of talk in the media about vaccines and autism
Despite a number of articles and books published during the 1950’s and 1960’s that blamed autism an a maternal lack of affection, there was a growing sense in the medical community that this did not explain autism as it was seen in the community. In 1964, Bernard Rimland, a psychologist with an autistic son, produced the book Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior, which attacked the “Refrigerator Mother” hypothesis directly.
Medical Marijuana and Asperger Disorder
These factors can result in other handicapping conditions, which explains why children with autism often have additional learning disabilities and some may have identified medical conditions such as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis and neurofibromatosis. However, this is not the full explanation as there are children who have damage to the brain as a result of these factors, but who do not have autism. There are also children diagnosed with autism in whom no cause is apparent, partly because the particular neurological impairment necessary for autism to occur has not yet been identified2. In a review, Gillberg 2 noted overwhelming evidence that autism has biological roots but found no single consistent explanation.
Medical conditions in autism spectrum disorders | …
Genetics have been shown to play a role but do not explain the fullpicture or the recent increase in reported cases. Studies have shownthat if one identical twin has the diagnosis, then there is a 30 -40%chance that the other twin will develop ASD. This concordance is hardlyever seen with non-identical twins. (Bailey et al, 1995) When a widerdefinition of ASD is used, the probability rates jump to 90% foridentical twins and 10% for non-identical (Bailey et al, 1995). Theprobability of receiving an ASD diagnosis when another sibling hasalready been diagnosed is estimated between 2 and 14%, a 10- to 20 -foldincrease over the general population incidence (see Hertz-Picciotto etal, 2006). No single gene has been identified as responsible and mostgenetic researches believe that multiple genes are involved(International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium, 1998).Research into genetics suggests that at least 40% of ASD cases may havean environmental cause (Hertz-Picciotto et al, 2006).
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