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Attention, memory and the `noticing'hypothesis.
Taking one hypotheses as an example--the noticing hypothesis--we illustrate the process of data collection, analysis, and interpretation through second language reading materials on the Web.
One study on discovering the complexity of the universe found that subjects did the best if they confirmed evidence supporting their hypothesis early, and disconfirmed evidence later; this explains the persistence of many scientists....
Attention, memory and the "noticing" hypothesis…
I believe that I have achieved a pretty good mastery of SuperMemo over the years. It does not mean though that SuperMemo still isn’t able to throw a curve ball every now and then. Take the Spread priorities feature for instance. When I first checked it, I was greeted with 0!!! against the yellow background in one of the fields: Step. I tried to change the value but no matter what I did I kept coming back to square one. As it turned out, it was SuperMemo’s way of telling me there aren’t enough priority positions for the subset I selected. SuperMemo may lack in the implementation department, even though it tries to address this, many times, at great length, in the documentation. In other words, with enough persistence you can find your way around the program. This journey of discovery may be stressful but nowhere near as much as the whole idea of incremental reading if you give it a careful thought. In fact, the more I read about it (at an attempt to dispel my doubts), the more stressful it becomes. Particularly, the entire prioritization stage seems overwhelming (to the point of nausea). The advantages you so diligently describe may all be true (although some are far from obvious and/or instant). Most of those advantage will hold only as long as you set the priorities right. But the entire process seems like a wild goose chase to me (not only because the priority queue is relative in its design). It would be interesting to know how much the student actually spends on priorities in the course of a daily learning session. For example, take a priority scale. In its relative variation (i.e. when expressed as percentage), it ranges from 1 to 100 which is simply too wide (the creators of the ABC analysis recognized that long time ago). I remember reading somewhere SuperMemo novices find it hard to grade yourself on the 6-piece scale. This now seems like a breeze as compared with giving a priority to a piece of knowledge. I understand the intention for more granular control but it is simply mind-boggling. To make matters worse, there are a number of processes (both manual/conscious and (semi-)automatic/unconscious) that erode your painstakingly set priority hierarchy. I do not mind when it actually changes but what if I accidentally stumble against an item whose priority I set as important, it still remains important, but somehow ended up in the later stages of the priority queue (and, from all what I have read, it is more than a remote possibility). When I read the article, I am often reminded of the following quote by Margaret Thatcher: "I do not know anyone who has got to the top without hard work. That is the recipe. It will not always get you to the top, but should get you pretty near." It holds a great promise but it is far from guarantee. I believe, I recognize really well how complex incremental reading actually is, and having that clearly in mind, I conclude your advantages section offers even less in the form of guarantee. You can invest a whole lot of time, and in the end SuperMemo will only make you realize how dismal you are at managing it all (because, make no mistake, you need to carefully manage it). The toolset may be rich but is it natural? Furthermore, it all depends on the correct input. Your advantages include uniform progress. Yeah, right. Developing tunnel vision when you import and process a large number of articles related to a single topic is as much if not (considering our human deficiencies) more likely.
'When I learned how to use SuperMemo, one of my first reactions was to show it to everybody around. I was very enthusiastic about the program and its underlying principles. However, I was very disappointed to find out how many people would say: "This is a cramming tool", "This is just memorizing", "This has nothing to do with reasoning or intelligence".
Attention, memory and the “noticing” hypothesis
In all sorts of exams, you will always need to tackle lots of "waffle". You will also meet teachers who demand fluent "waffle" performance. However, this is not the type of knowledge that will make you a better expert or a better person. If you meet "waffle", pause to think if there are questions that truly flow from the text, or if the text is too general to be handled with SuperMemo. In your case, you might do better by perhaps adding some meatier passages on enterprise synergy or constraints on innovation or... Actually, you are the best person to find supplementary material that will help you better understand the underlying issues.
Not all texts are suitable or easy to process with incremental reading. You will not want to process a literary novel with incremental reading. You may still prefer to read it on paper in a bathtub. Examples of texts that are difficult to process are: flowery materials, materials rich in explanations and metaphors, programming code, case studies, mathematical derivations, experimental research documentation, etc. Incremental reading is easiest for encyclopedic materials. Materials that are not suitable will often include a valuable message; however, you will often be better off by phrasing it on your own and processing your summary with incremental reading. For example, you would not want to memorize the Linux source code. However, you could find some specific facts or regularities in the code, describe them shortly and then learn the description incrementally (perhaps with snippet code illustrations).
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memory and the ‘noticing’ hypothesis
Finally, you may realize that you question is actually a definition of a term (credit/allowance). As such, it does not even need the . You may also notice that the definition misses an important context point. The original question spoke of carbon emissions (which is probably indicated by the references that provide the context of the question).
'Attention, memory and the 'noticing' hypothesis.' ..
This piece begins with an ominous context-buster: "already mentioned". It poses interesting questions. However, it will take a while for an incremental reader to find cloze keywords that would answer the most essential question of long term learning: What do I really want to remember for life from the passage I have just read?
The noticing hypothesis is a ..
It is true that solving problems requires high concentration. However, in the ideal world, you should devote separate time slots to (1) learning and (2) problem solving. In Covey's terminology, your learning boosts the Production Capacity, while your problem solving time is your Production time. Naturally, you can marry the two slots when problem solving occurs in conditions of information deficit. Incremental reading is an ideal tool for such situations. You can combine the inflow of new information with creative efforts and problem solving while retaining maximum focus on the problem at hand. This is explained in: . You can optimize the degree of monothematic focus by using various tools of incremental reading, esp. as well as .
Attention, memory and the ‘noticing’ hypothesis
If you give incremental learning a more determined try, you will understand that the opposite is true: perfectionists should love incremental learning! Your perfectionist nature should accept the overriding rule: maximum quality knowledge in minimum time. It is not the beauty of in your that counts, but the beauty of knowledge in your mind. For a skillful student, incremental learning is based on a set of perfectly-formed strict and rigid rules that guarantee the maximum speed of . It is true that some of these rules can make you uneasy at first. If you see a sentence that qualifies for a , the rule is: execute the and defer worrying about its exact formulation to its first repetition. The mere choice of the cloze keyword will leave sufficient traces in your memory to qualify as a repetition. In such circumstances, perfecting the formulation of the will become art for art's stake. A higher level rule is: minimum work for maximum memory effect. Therefore, you will improve the formulation of the as soon as you proceed with the first repetition. And again, you will do only as much work as it is necessary to successfully complete a single repetition act. Again you give up details and frills. Ultimately, your will become perfectly formulated, perfectly prioritized, and perfectly placed in your . Alternatively, it will be deleted or left lingering in your "to do" subset. It is the perfect rules of incremental learning and the perfect learning results that should feed your perfectionist needs, not the perfect "look" of your learning material.
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