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Glycolysis Summary - Elmhurst College

But how does dietary restriction work to achieve these results? The answer to this is not known for sure but this is what Dr. Walford has to say: "Restricted animals are chemically younger that their chronological age would indicate...The amount of different enzymes in tissues...are in many instances characteristic of the age of the animal (my italics). Enzymes are of critical importance in metabolism because they regulate the rates at which most cellular events are happening...The level of [the enzyme] adenosine triphosphatase in the liver of a normally fed rat reaches peak value at 200 days then gradually declines with further age. In restricted rats, the peak and beginning of decline do not occur until 600-700 days."

Cell energy metabolic pathways have a strong interlink with redox balance of cancer cells.

It has been the focus of this essay to illustrate the need and basis for a metabolic (not allopathic) approach to nutrition, to describe the basis for metabolic testing, and to give credit to and express my respect for the gifted scientists from whose wonderful findings all can prosper through a lifetime of good health and well-being.

How is ATP synthesised? | Yahoo Answers

Major pathways include glycolysis, glutaminolysis, fatty acid oxidation, one-carbon metabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway [,,,].

He developed his own metabolic typing system based on cellular oxidation. Foods are turned into energy in a sequence of steps in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Certain vitamins and minerals are required at each stage. A lack of these can result in less than optimal energy production and “a wide variety of mental and emotional disorders.” How a person functions psychologically depends on the rate of cellular oxidation.

The Autonomic Model
The clue to where he should look came from two other researchers, Francis Pottenger MD and Royal Lee DDS. They discovered that much of the answer lay in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) that controls bodily processes outside of conscious control. Divided into two parts, the sympathetic “fight or flight” branch which tends to speed up metabolism, and the parasympathetic “rest and digest” branch which tends to slow metabolism.

19/11/2007 · is glycolysis included in it

Metabolic pathways reprogramming provides additional supply of small antioxidant molecules like reduced glutathione and NADPH[,,,,,].

This is an interesting case to further illustrate a metabolic versus an allopathic approach. On the surface, one could say that I had used zinc allopathically, since it is commonly used for skin problems. (It is also common for zinc supplementation to result in a positive effect in some and no effect in others.) From a metabolic approach, I knew that additional zinc would be appropriate for her Metabolic Type. In a Fast Oxidizer, zinc would assist in bringing the underlying imbalance into accord. (The deficiency, itself, likely stemmed from an inability to utilize zinc due to the metabolic imbalance.) If she had been a Slow Oxidizer, zinc would further exacerbate the fundamental imbalance, thus it would have been an incorrect supplement to use. If a Slow Oxidizer were to take zinc supplementally, that person would not be able to metabolize it, and it would likely require supplementation of a cofactor in zinc metabolism, not zinc itself.

Likewise for essential fatty acids. Her particular Metabolic Type requires a greater amount of EFA's than do other types, and this I was able to determine. This case gets to the crux of why to use a metabolic approach vs. an allopathic one. The same treatment for the same condition would not have been effective in a different Metabolic Type. I could go on and describe others, but I believe these few case histories illustrate the amazing power tool metabolic testing can be.

How many net ATP molecules are produced by the glycolysis of one glucose molecule
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How is ATP synthesized in photosynthesis?

All humans produce energy through the Krebs cycle, but in the Autonomic Metabolic Types this process is overshadowed by the action of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), in collaboration with the endocrine system. Accordingly, the Autonomic types (Sympathetics and Parasympathetics) are not so dependent on the Krebs cycle as the Oxidative types for their sense of well-being. This accounts for a phenomenon commonly noted by practitioners of Metabolic Typing. Fast Oxidizers process glucose very rapidly. After ingesting the glucose challenge drink during the Metabolic Typing testing protocol, the blood sugar levels of a Fast Oxidizer will rapidly rise, then fall in a sharp curve. As the blood sugar crashes, so too does the individual's sense of energy and well-being. An Autonomic Sympathetic, however, can exhibit a similar or even identical blood sugar curve to the Fast Oxidizer, but the Sympathetic individual is generally unaffected when the blood sugar levels plummet; in fact, in many cases the sense of well-being will even increase. This phenomenon, which is at first quite baffling, is simply explained by the dominance principle. The metabolism of the Sympathetics is primarily driven by the activity of the autonomic nervous system, rather than by the oxidative system, so the dynamic energy of the sympathetic branch of the nervous system carries them through a blood sugar crash that would sink a Fast Oxidizer.

Aerobic vs. anaerobic glycolysis - Open Anesthesia

Approximately 80% of the body's energy is generated through the Krebs cycle, in concert with the electron transport chain. The other 20% is produced through the less efficient process of glycolysis, in which a portion of the glucose that would otherwise be fed into the Krebs cycle is siphoned off and converted into pyruvate, then ATP. Glycolysis can only use glucose as its raw material - very little of which can be stored in the body at any one time - whereas the Krebs cycle also uses fat, a far more abundant energy source. However, glycolysis does not require the presence of oxygen (defining it as an anaerobic process), unlike the Krebs cycle, which can only function in the presence of oxygen (defining it as an aerobic process). Because the 20% of energy produced through glycolysis is not enough to drive our metabolic processes, it alone is insufficient to sustain human life; hence the need for oxygen for our survival. Furthermore, while the energy produced through the Krebs cycle generally burns "clean", the energy generated by glycolysis produces "smoke" in the form of lactic acid, a potentially damaging waste product that places a serious burden on the body's detoxification systems.

ATP Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

Conversely, the glucose challenge drink is alkalizing to the Autonomic types (Sympathetics and Parasympathetics), thereby increasing blood levels of oxygen and decreasing levels of CO2. (This phenomenon illustrates one of the key observations of Metabolic typing, that the same nutrients produce opposite pH effects at the level of the blood in the Oxidative and the Autonomic Metabolic Types). Accordingly, their respiration rate will tend to drop, due to the presence of more than adequate amounts of oxygen, while their ability to hold their breath will increase. These traits would therefore suggest that an individual demonstrating such a shift is one of the two Autonomic types.

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