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Ethambutol was obtained in 35% overall yield in three steps by ..
The use of a mixture of dl- and meso-divinylethylene carbonate as an electrophile in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions is reported. From the diastereomeric mixture of meso and chiral racemic starting materials, a single product is obtained in high optical purity employing either oxygen or nitrogen nucleophiles. The resulting dienes have proven to be versatile synthetic intermediates as each carbon is functionalized for further transformation and differentiated by virtue of the reaction. A mechanism for this intriguing transformation is proposed and a concise enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-australine hydrochloride is reported as well as a formal synthesis of isoaltholactone.
Inducing absolute stereochemistry in Wagner-Meerwein shifts was examined in a ring expansion protocol. Initiated by generation of a pi-allylpalladium intermediate by hydropalladation of allenes, the ring expansion of allenylcyclobutanol substrates proceeded with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. The results demonstrate that, during the C-C bond migration process, our chiral catalysts can control the stereochemistry of both the pi-allylpalladium intermediate and the corresponding migration bond. Moreover, the stereochemical outcome of the reaction can be rationalized very well with the working model of the chiral catalyst. The method provides an efficient way to synthesize highly substituted cyclopentanones with an alpha-chiral O-tertiary center which has various synthetic applications.
Asymmetric synthesis | Enantioselective Synthesis | B Cell
Asymmetric aldol reactions are a powerful method for the construction of carbon-carbon bonds in an enantioselective fashion. Historically this reaction has been performed in a stoichiometric fashion to control the various aspects of chemo-, diastereo-, regio- and enantioselectivity, however, a more atom economical approach would unite high selectivity with the use of only a catalytic amount of a chiral promoter. This critical review documents the development of direct catalytic asymmetric aldol methodologies, including organocatalytic and metal-based strategies. New methods have improved the reactivity, selectivity and substrate scope of the direct aldol reaction and enabled the synthesis of complex molecular targets (357 references).
Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative asymmetric allylic alkylation (DAAA) of allyl enol carbonates as a highly chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective process for the synthesis of ketones bearing either a quaternary or a tertiary alpha-stereogenic center has been investigated in detail. Chiral ligand L4 was found to be optimal in the DAAA of a broad scope of cyclic and acyclic ketones including simple aliphatic ketones with more than one enolizable proton. The allyl moiety of the carbonates has been extended to a variety of cyclic or acyclic disubstituted allyl groups. Our mechanistic studies reveal that, similar to the direct allylation of lithium enolates, the DAAA reaction proceeds through an "outer sphere" S(N)2 type of attack on the pi-allylpalladium complex by the enolate. An important difference between the DAAA reaction and the direct allylation of lithium enolates is that in the DAAA reaction, the nucleophile and the electrophile were generated simultaneously. Since the pi-allylpalladium cation must serve as the counterion for the enolate, the enolate probably exists as a tight-ion-pair. This largely prevents the common side reactions of enolates associated with the equilibrium between different enolates. The much milder reaction conditions as well as the much broader substrate scope also represent the advantages of the DAAA reaction over the direct allylation of preformed metal enolates.
Efficient synthesis of (S,S)-ethambutol from l ..
Magnesium-catalyzed enantioselective aldol between ethyl diazoacetate and aromatic, aliphatic, and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes affords alpha-diazo-beta-hydroxy-esters in high enantioselectivities. Aldol adducts resulting from this asymmetric transformation are versatile intermediates toward the synthesis of several ester containing chiral building blocks.
A highly regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective allylic alkylation reaction of 3-monosubstituted oxindoles catalyzed by molybdenum is described. The reaction is affected by the electronic and steric variations of the nucleophile. The use of appropriate N-protecting group is particularly important for achieving high regio- and diastereoselectivity. Products from this reaction, containing vicinal quaternary-tertiary stereogenic centers, are valuable synthetic intermediates and should find utility in alkaloid synthesis.
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(S,S)-ethambutol from l-methionine
In this article, we report a full account of our recent development of pyrroles and N-alkoxyamides as new classes of nucleophiles for palladium-catalyzed AAA reactions, along with application of these methodologies in the total synthesis of agelastatin A, a marine natural product with exceptional anticancer activity and other biological properties. Our method allows for access to either regioisomer of the pyrrolopiperazinones (6 and 19) with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. Note that isomer 19 was obtained via a cascade reaction through a double allylic alkylation pathway. From regioisomer 6, the total synthesis of (+)-agelastatin A was completed in a very short fashion (four steps from 6), during the course of which we developed a new copper catalyst for aziridination and an In(OTf)(3)/DMSO system to oxidatively open an N-tosyl aziridine. Starting with the other pyrrolopiperazinone 19, a five-step sequence has been developed to furnish a formal total synthesis of (-)-agelastatin A. A unique feature of our syntheses is the use of two rather different strategies for the total syntheses of both enantiomers of agelastatin A using the same enantiomer of a chiral palladium catalyst.
07/01/2018 · Chirality (chemistry) The ..
We report a full account of our work towards the total synthesis of (-)-terpestacin (1), a sesterterpene originally isolated from fungal strain Arthrinium sp. FA1744. Its promising anti-HIV and anti-cancer activity, as well as its novel structure, make terpestacin an attractive synthetic target. A strategy based on the unique reactivity of cyclic 1,2-diketones (diosphenols) was developed and total synthesis of 1 was achieved in 20 steps, in the longest linear sequence, from commercially available 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. The key feature of our synthesis is the double usage of a "Pd AAA-Claisen" protocol (AAA=asymmetric allylic alkylation), first in the early stages to generate the C1 quaternary center and then in the late stages to install the side chain. In addition, a rather unusual ene-1,2-dione moiety was synthesized and utilized as an excellent Michael acceptor to attach the C15 substituent. Several possible routes towards the total synthesis have been examined and carefully evaluated. During our exploration many interesting chemoselectivity issues have been addressed, such as a highly selective ring-closing metathesis and a challenging oxidation of a disubstituted olefin in the presence of three trisubstituted ones.
We report an asymmetric synthesis ..
The presumed site of action of drugs on the taste system varies. Often the drug is tasted directly during oral administration of the drug or the drug or its metabolites are tasted after being excreted in saliva. Many drugs, for example anticholinergics or some antidepressants, cause oral dryness and affect taste through inadequate presentation of the tastant to the taste cells via saliva. Some drugs may affect taste cells directly. Because taste cells have a high turnover rate, they are especially vulnerable to drugs that interrupt protein synthesis, such as antineoplastic drugs. It has also been thought that there may be an effect on impulse transmission through the taste nerves or in the ganglion cells, or a change in the processing of the stimuli in higher taste centres. Metallic dysgeusia has been reported with lithium, possibly through transformations in receptor ion channels. Anti-thyroid drugs and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (e.g., captopril and enalapril) are well known causes of taste alterations, possibly because of the presence of a sulphydryl (-SH) group (Mott, Grushka and Sessle 1993). Other drugs with -SH groups (e.g., methimazole, penicillamine) also cause taste abnormalities. Drugs that affect neurotransmitters could potentially alter taste perception.
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