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Aquatic ape hypothesis - Wikipedia
Humans are the large-brained, allegedly sentient species that dominates Earth, and humans have greatly altered evolutionary processes, down to “engineering” the DNA of organisms. We have a “nature” and multi-billion year heritage, as any organism does. How much have we changed ours, and how much do our natures really matter? Can we consciously change our natures or overcome them? The nature/nurture debate is quite old, and as the domestication of plants and animals has demonstrated, or the , nurture can nature by selective breeding at the least. The , as an experiment, and the changes were dramatic. There is plenty about humanity that is nature at work, such as a child's acquisition of language or the urge to procreate (and the related ). Also, a great deal is socially learned. At least half of the variance in human traits such as intelligence and personality has been attributed to genetics, and nearly all the rest is socialization by the peer group (I believe that the , and the guiding role, but that is not scientifically demonstrable, at least today). But few of those scientific findings regarding human nature, if any of them, are relevant to why imperial "entertainment" is no longer . The improvement in standard of living due to increased energy consumption has precipitated many changes in what was once considered human "nature," such as . In a , would the dominant ideologies exalt and ?
Meanwhile, is crashing. As I have performed my studies since 1990, including numerous scientific topics, one issue became clear: biologists and climate scientists are in a panic regarding what is happening. Biologists know that they are living through the , which is caused by humans and is happening before their eyes. Climate scientists are watching humans alter the atmosphere to the extent that may be caused within a geologic timescale’s blink of an eye. It took more than two billion years for , and the , which took many millions of years to transpire. But humanity may end up altering the atmosphere so much in a mere few hundred years to actually turn Earth from an into a Greenhouse Earth, create and events, or myriad other potential outcomes. Industrial humanity is engaging in a chemistry and physics experiment with our home planet, and hardly anybody seems to notice or care. That frightens climate scientists, and biologists know that those potential geophysical events can make the current extinction event even more pronounced, and humans may achieve a mass extinction that exceeds even the , and do it quicker than every previous extinction event other than that . For one of many ominous trends, the oceans are being acidified by the increasingly acidic rain, which is . Peter Ward’s is not so farfetched, as he churns out grim books with his emeritus years not far off, but humans are the current agents of destruction, not Mother Earth and her other species. On , humanity is peering into the abyss.
Aquatic ape hypothesis - Psychology Wiki
Readers for the collective task that I have in mind need to become familiar with the scientific process, partly so they can develop a critical eye for the kinds of arguments and evidence that attend the pursuit of FE and other fringe science/technology efforts. For the remainder of this essay, I will attempt to refrain from referring to too many scientific papers and getting into too many details of the controversies. Following my references will help readers who want to go deeply into the issues, and many of them are as deep and controversial as the Snowball Earth hypothesis and aftermath has proven to be, or attempts to explain the . These are relatively new areas of scientific investigation, partly due to an improved scientific toolset and ingenious ways to use them. It is very possible that the controversies in those areas will diminish within the next generation as new hypotheses account for increasingly sophisticated data, and in the near future are nearly certain. But science is always subject to becoming dogmatic and hypotheses can prevail for reasons of wealth, power, rhetorical skill, and the like, not because they are valid. The history of science is plagued with that phenomenon, and probably will be as long as humanity lives in the era of scarcity.
For this essay’s purposes, the most important ecological understanding is that the Sun provides all of earthly life’s energy, either (all except nuclear-powered electric lights driving photosynthesis in greenhouses, as that energy came from dead stars). Today’s hydrocarbon energy that powers our industrial world comes from captured sunlight. Exciting electrons with photon energy, then stripping off electrons and protons and using their electric potential to power biochemical reactions, is what makes Earth’s ecosystems possible. Too little energy, and reactions will not happen (such as ice ages, enzyme poisoning, the darkness of night, food shortages, and lack of key nutrients that support biological reactions), and too much (such as , ionizing radiation, temperatures too high for enzyme activity), and life is damaged or destroyed. The journey of life on Earth has primarily been about adapting to varying energy conditions and finding levels where life can survive. For the many hypotheses about those ancient events and what really happened, the answers are always primarily in energy terms, such as how it was obtained, how it was preserved, and how it was used. For life scientists, that is always the framework, and they devote themselves to discovering how the energy game was played.
Anti-aquatic ape hypothesis Edit
This chapter presents several energy and chemistry concepts essential to this essay. Even though scientists do not really know what energy (they do not know what light or gravity , either), energy is perhaps best seen as motion, whether it is a photon flying through space, the "orbit" of an electron around an atom's nucleus or of Earth around the Sun, an object falling to Earth, a river flowing toward the ocean, air moving through Earth's atmosphere, rising and falling tides, and blood moving through a heart.
Those processes and events can interact with each other, and a few examples can provide an idea of the dynamics’ complexity. What follows are today’s orthodox views, to the best of my knowledge, and they can certainly change in the future, perhaps even radically, just as cosmological and subatomic theories may change radically. It seems to me, however, that geophysical and geochemical processes are understood better and have more robust data than many other areas of science, so geophysics and geochemistry are areas where I expect fewer radical changes than others. Maybe that is because it is neither too big nor too small and closer to our daily reality than distant stars or what is happening inside atoms.
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Surprise new evidence in support of the 'Aquatic Ape' …
When scientists and scholars discuss , or the demise of , or the , some will always attribute such events to climate change as they deflect responsibility from humans. Climate change has probably never been the ultimate cause for such events. The ultimate cause was probably always humans, and everything else was a proximate cause, at most. In the past several hundred years, there are clear instances when deforestation and sheep grazing quickly turned moist forests and/or , particularly in the kinds of temperate regions where the first civilizations arose. When scientists have investigated and reconstructed the dynamics that led to the collapse of , the , or the Anasazi, the story was always the same. Human civilizations altered the ecosystems, usually via deforestation and agriculture, which made them lose their resilience, and a drought did them in. Those urban areas were permanently abandoned. That civilization-collapse dynamic is like the hypothesis for why mass extinctions have punctuated the eon of complex life: those multi-tiered energy systems .
Surprise new evidence in support of the 'Aquatic Ape' hypothesis Done
Anasazi civilization also overtaxed its environment and collapsed in a drought, as did the . The lauding of Native American environmental conscience seems largely a romantic invention, like the “” fantasy. Although Native Americans obviously had a far gentler tenure on the land than what happened in the Old World, it may have been only a matter of time before they “progressed” with metal smelting, rampant deforestation, and the like. Without draft animals (bison were probably the only candidate for that, and turning them into domesticated draft animals may not have been feasible), their civilizations might have taken very different paths than the Old World’s. What kinds of civilizations might have emerged from the Western Hemisphere had Europe not intervened will always remain a tantalizing question, but we will never know; those civilizations show different ways to do it, even if what the Spaniards stumbled into seemed familiar, with cities, markets, elites, monumental architecture, warriors, priests, peasants, slaves, and so on.
Aquatic Ape Hypothesis by Amy Warner on Prezi
After newly exposed forest soils have produced a few crops, the yield will decline due to nutrient depletion. When the croplands receive less precipitation, yields drop. When soils wash away due to erosion, crop yields in those eroded soils will decline. Those effects reduce the EROI and surplus energy of farming those lands. When cropland is abandoned due to aridity, nutrient depletion, and erosion, and lands farther from Rome were conquered, deforested, and farmed, it took more energy to transport those crops to Rome than with farms closer to Rome. That also depressed the EROI and surplus energy. When harbors silted up and needed dredging, or were eventually abandoned and a port was built farther away, that also reduced the EROI and surplus energy of Rome-bound food. When food was used to feed soldiers who traveled increasingly vast distances to conquer and plunder peoples and their lands, those would be lower-EROI ventures than conquests closer to Rome. That dynamic has also been called in academic parlance, but in scientific terms, it is really just sucking the dregs of low-EROI resources after high-EROI energy sources have been depleted. Rome’s decline was really just another resource-depletion dynamic. Humanity’s first one was , and Rome only experienced what , , , , and numerous other early civilizations already suffered. Rome just did it on an unprecedented scale.
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