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Antimicrobial prophylaxis for prevention of surgical site …

Coronary artery disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, is a chronic inflammatory process that develops in response to a variety of injuries. A number of microbial organisms have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The strongest evidence to date for an association between an infectious agent and coronary heart disease is that for Chlamydia pneumoniae. Evidence implicating other microbial organisms is much less compelling. Sero-epidemiological and pathological data have linked infection with C. pneumoniae to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. A possible mechanism by which C. pneumoniae may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is through immune activation and the initiation of a chronic inflammatory state in the infected arterial wall. Locally secreted inflammatory cytokines trigger a cascade of secondary cellular processes that lead to characteristic structural changes. C. pneumoniae has been detected in atherosclerotic plaques and in the serum of patients with coronary artery disease. It induces foam cells (the hallmark of early atherosclerosis) and it markedly accelerates this disease process in animal models. C. pneumoniae has been associated with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants. Data from three interventional studies in humans have suggested that treatment with antibiotics decreases inflammatory markers and perhaps influences the anti-C. pneumoniae antibody titers; however, adverse clinical events were not uniformly reduced in all trials. Two large prospective clinical trials, the WIZARD trial and ACES, are underway to confirm these preliminary findings and test the hypothesis that antibiotics may be beneficial in preventing or modifying the course of coronary artery disease. At present, antimicrobial therapy for atherosclerosis is not advocated outside of well-controlled research settings.

Antimicrobial effectiveness of spices: an approach for use in …

When you wash your hands, the goal is not to kill all the microbes. As Larson and a group of colleagues put it in a 2003 paper "Handwashing with a non-antimicrobial soap does little to modify the natural [citizen] flora. In fact, such an effect would be undesirable." What is desirable is, instead, to kill the tourists who have just turned up but not yet established, or at least the dangerous among those newly arrived species. Kill the tourists is a reasonable hand washing motto (although the truth is we still know surprisingly little about the citizens; they are the neglected serfs of our bodies). Soap is thought to be effective at killing the tourists, not always, but at least often, although this hypothesis has never been directly tested.

Dry Copper Kills Bacteria on Contact

Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology On-line version ISSN 1678-4324 Braz

The mammary gland is a skin gland unique to the class Mammalia. Despite a growing molecular and histological understanding of the development and physiology of the mammary gland, its functional and morphological origins have remained speculative. Numerous theories on the origin of the mammary gland and lactation exist. The purpose of the mammary gland is to provide the newborn with copious amounts of milk, a unique body fluid that has a dual role of nutrition and immunological protection. Interestingly, antimicrobial enzymes, such as xanthine oxidoreductase or lysozyme, are directly involved in the evolution of the nutritional aspect of milk. We outline that xanthine oxidoreductase evolved a dual role in the mammary gland and hence provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the nutritional function of the milk evolved subsequent to its protective function. Therefore, we postulate that the mammary gland evolved from the innate immune system. In addition, we suggest that lactation partly evolved as an inflammatory response to tissue damage and infection, and discuss the observation that the two signaling pathways, NF-kB and Jak/Stat, play central roles in inflammation as well as in lactation.

N2 - The mammary gland is a skin gland unique to the class Mammalia. Despite a growing molecular and histological understanding of the development and physiology of the mammary gland, its functional and morphological origins have remained speculative. Numerous theories on the origin of the mammary gland and lactation exist. The purpose of the mammary gland is to provide the newborn with copious amounts of milk, a unique body fluid that has a dual role of nutrition and immunological protection. Interestingly, antimicrobial enzymes, such as xanthine oxidoreductase or lysozyme, are directly involved in the evolution of the nutritional aspect of milk. We outline that xanthine oxidoreductase evolved a dual role in the mammary gland and hence provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the nutritional function of the milk evolved subsequent to its protective function. Therefore, we postulate that the mammary gland evolved from the innate immune system. In addition, we suggest that lactation partly evolved as an inflammatory response to tissue damage and infection, and discuss the observation that the two signaling pathways, NF-kB and Jak/Stat, play central roles in inflammation as well as in lactation.

CIC Examination Content Outline - CBIC

Community-level antibiotic access and use (ABACUS) in low …

N2 - Coronary artery disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, is a chronic inflammatory process that develops in response to a variety of injuries. A number of microbial organisms have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The strongest evidence to date for an association between an infectious agent and coronary heart disease is that for Chlamydia pneumoniae. Evidence implicating other microbial organisms is much less compelling. Sero-epidemiological and pathological data have linked infection with C. pneumoniae to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. A possible mechanism by which C. pneumoniae may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is through immune activation and the initiation of a chronic inflammatory state in the infected arterial wall. Locally secreted inflammatory cytokines trigger a cascade of secondary cellular processes that lead to characteristic structural changes. C. pneumoniae has been detected in atherosclerotic plaques and in the serum of patients with coronary artery disease. It induces foam cells (the hallmark of early atherosclerosis) and it markedly accelerates this disease process in animal models. C. pneumoniae has been associated with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants. Data from three interventional studies in humans have suggested that treatment with antibiotics decreases inflammatory markers and perhaps influences the anti-C. pneumoniae antibody titers; however, adverse clinical events were not uniformly reduced in all trials. Two large prospective clinical trials, the WIZARD trial and ACES, are underway to confirm these preliminary findings and test the hypothesis that antibiotics may be beneficial in preventing or modifying the course of coronary artery disease. At present, antimicrobial therapy for atherosclerosis is not advocated outside of well-controlled research settings.

AB - Coronary artery disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, is a chronic inflammatory process that develops in response to a variety of injuries. A number of microbial organisms have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The strongest evidence to date for an association between an infectious agent and coronary heart disease is that for Chlamydia pneumoniae. Evidence implicating other microbial organisms is much less compelling. Sero-epidemiological and pathological data have linked infection with C. pneumoniae to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. A possible mechanism by which C. pneumoniae may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is through immune activation and the initiation of a chronic inflammatory state in the infected arterial wall. Locally secreted inflammatory cytokines trigger a cascade of secondary cellular processes that lead to characteristic structural changes. C. pneumoniae has been detected in atherosclerotic plaques and in the serum of patients with coronary artery disease. It induces foam cells (the hallmark of early atherosclerosis) and it markedly accelerates this disease process in animal models. C. pneumoniae has been associated with elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase reactants. Data from three interventional studies in humans have suggested that treatment with antibiotics decreases inflammatory markers and perhaps influences the anti-C. pneumoniae antibody titers; however, adverse clinical events were not uniformly reduced in all trials. Two large prospective clinical trials, the WIZARD trial and ACES, are underway to confirm these preliminary findings and test the hypothesis that antibiotics may be beneficial in preventing or modifying the course of coronary artery disease. At present, antimicrobial therapy for atherosclerosis is not advocated outside of well-controlled research settings.

Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis) - Infectious Disease …
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Soil Beneficial Bacteria and Their Role In Plant Growth …

When you wash your hands, the goal is not to kill all the microbes. As Larson and a group of colleagues put it in a 2003 paper "Handwashing with a non-antimicrobial soap does little to modify the natural [citizen] flora. In fact, such an effect would be undesirable." What is desirable is, instead, to kill the tourists who have just turned up but not yet established, or at least the dangerous among those newly arrived species. Kill the tourists is a reasonable hand washing motto (although the truth is we still know surprisingly little about the citizens; they are the neglected serfs of our bodies). Soap is thought to be effective at killing the tourists, not always, but at least often, although this hypothesis has never been directly tested.

Science Fair Projects - Bacteria resistance to antibiotics

AB - The mammary gland is a skin gland unique to the class Mammalia. Despite a growing molecular and histological understanding of the development and physiology of the mammary gland, its functional and morphological origins have remained speculative. Numerous theories on the origin of the mammary gland and lactation exist. The purpose of the mammary gland is to provide the newborn with copious amounts of milk, a unique body fluid that has a dual role of nutrition and immunological protection. Interestingly, antimicrobial enzymes, such as xanthine oxidoreductase or lysozyme, are directly involved in the evolution of the nutritional aspect of milk. We outline that xanthine oxidoreductase evolved a dual role in the mammary gland and hence provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the nutritional function of the milk evolved subsequent to its protective function. Therefore, we postulate that the mammary gland evolved from the innate immune system. In addition, we suggest that lactation partly evolved as an inflammatory response to tissue damage and infection, and discuss the observation that the two signaling pathways, NF-kB and Jak/Stat, play central roles in inflammation as well as in lactation.

Bacteria resistance to antibiotics ..

Cationic peptides with the propensity to adopt an amphipathic α-helical conformation in a membrane-mimetic environment are synthesized in the skins of many species of anurans (frogs and toads). These peptides frequently display cytolytic activities against a range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi consistent with the idea that they play a role in the host's system of innate immunity. However, the importance of the peptides in the survival strategy of the animal is not clearly understood. It is a common misconception that antimicrobial peptides are synthesized in the skins of all anurans. In fact, the species distribution is sporadic suggesting that their production may confer some evolutionary advantage to the organism but is not necessary for survival. Although growth inhibitory activity against the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, responsible for anuran population declines worldwide, has been demonstrated in vitro, the ability of frog skin antimicrobial peptides to protect the animal in the wild appears to be limited and there is no clear correlation between their production by a species and its resistance to fatal chytridiomycosis. The low potency of many frog skin antimicrobial peptides is consistent with the hypothesis that cutaneous symbiotic bacteria may provide the major system of defense against pathogenic microorganisms in the environment with antimicrobial peptides assuming a supplementary role in some species.

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