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Interferes with Cell Wall Synthesis
mechanism producing new enzymes that destroy, alter, or inactivate the antibiotic, altering porins in the outer membrane of gram-negative cell walls result antibiotic does not enter the bacterium, producing an efflux pump that actively transport the antibiotic back out of the bacterium result insufficient antibiotic within the bacterium, modulating gene expression to produce more of the bacterial enzyme that is being tied up or altered by the antibiotic examples enhancing the function of RNA polymerase
Penicillins are generally bactericidal, inhibiting the formation of the bacterial cell wall. Penicillins are used to treat skin infections, dental infections, ear infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and gonorrhea.
Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis: Bacitracin, ..
Different types of antibiotics affect different bacteria in different ways. For example, an antibiotic might inhibit a bacterium's ability to turn glucose into energy, or its ability to construct its cell wall. When this happens, the bacterium dies instead of reproducing.
Cephalosporins have a mechanism of action identical to that of the penicillins. However, the basic chemical structure of the penicillins and cephalosporins differs in other respects, resulting in different spectrum of antibacterial activity. Like the penicillins, cephalosporins have a beta-lactam ring structure that interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall and so are bactericidal. Cephalosporins are derived from cephalosporin C which is produced from .
Those that target the bacterial cell wall, ..
Because of its unique cell wall, when it is stained by the acid-fast procedure, it will resist decolorization with acid-alcohol and stain red, the color of the initial stain, carbol fuchsin. With the exception of a very few other acid-fast bacteria such as Nocardia, all other bacteria will be decolorized and stain blue, the color of the methylene blue counterstain.
In addition to peptidoglycan, the acid-fast cell wall of Mycobacterium contains a large amount of glycolipids, especially mycolic acids. The peptidoglycan layer is linked to arabinogalactan (D-arabinose and D-galactose) which is then linked to high-molecular weight mycolic acids. The arabinogalactan/mycolic acid layer is overlaid with a layer of polypeptides and mycolic acids consisting of free lipids, glycolipids, and peptidoglycolipids. Other glycolipids include lipoarabinomannan and phosphatidyinositol mannosides (PIM). Like the outer membrane of the gram-negative cell wall, porins are required to transport small hydrophilic molecules through the outer membrane of the acid-fast cell wall.
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disrupting cell wall synthesis.
mechanism modulating gene expression to produce more of the bacterial enzyme that is being tied up or altered by the antibiotic, altering the membranes and transport systems to prevent the entry of the antibiotic into the bacterium and/or using an efflux pump to transport the antibiotic out of the bacterium examples altering porins in the outer membrane of gram-negative cell walls, beta-lactam antibiotics no longer bind to transpeptidase examples of beta- lactam antibiotics penicillins, monobactams, carbapenems, cephalosporins, producing beta-lactamases action breaks down beta-lactam antibiotics, altering the membranes and transport systems to prevent the entry of the antibiotic into the bacterium and/or using an efflux pump to transport the antibiotic out of the bacterium examples producing an efflux pump that actively transport the antibiotic back out of the bacterium, modulating gene expression to produce more of the bacterial enzyme that is being tied up or altered by the antibiotic examples not producing an antisense RNA that is complementary to a mRNA, mutation alters genes Gene products enable the bacterium to become resistant to an antibiotic or chemical agent., increased synthesis of the limited enzyme result insufficient antibiotic to tie up all the enzyme, enhancing the function of RNA polymerase leads to increased synthesis of the limited enzyme, altering the transport proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane action blocks active transport, Gene products enable the bacterium to become resistant to an antibiotic or chemical agent.
Agents Inhibit Synthesis of the Acid-Fast Cell Wall.
Plasmocin™ is used to cure cell lines infected by mycoplasma and related cell wall-less bacteria.
Plasmocin™ can also be used as a routine addition in liquid media to prevent mycoplasma and more generally bacterial contamination in small and large animal cell cultures.
inhibits cell wall synthesis, ..
1. INH (isoniazid) appears to block the synthesis of mycolic acid, a key component of the acid-fast cell wall of mycobacteria (see Fig. 9).
Antibiotics that inhibit cell wall
Obviously, cell systems for maintaining membranes, metabolism, enzyme synthesis, and gene preservation are inter-linked, and whatever affects one will affect the other.
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