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Psb28 Protein Is Involved in the ..
The differences in the rates of photosynthesis can be explained through an examination of things that compete with photosynthesis through absorption of light. Play particular attention to the absorption properties, especially in the blue portion of the spectrum.
Determination of efficient (photosynthetically speaking) light sources is important for several reasons. Economy in the costs of maintaining a coral reef aquarium certainly is a concern, but the health of zooxanthellae and hence their animal host should be of primary importance. Aesthetic concerns, such as the promotion of coral coloration through expression of fluorescent proteins and non-fluorescent chromoproteins, are of interest to many.
Selective assembly of photosynthetic antenna proteins …
Behrenfeld MJ, Bale A, Kolber Z, Aiken J and Falkowski PG (1996) Confirmation of iron limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 383: 508–511.
Approximately 20 protein subunits are associated with the PS II complex, not counting subunits of peripheral light-harvesting antenna complexes. However, it is not yet established which proteins specifically are involved in the water-oxidation process. Much evidence supports the concept that the D1/D2 reaction center heterodimer not only plays a central role in the primary photochemistry of Photosystem II, but also is involved in electron donation to P680 and in ligation of the manganese cluster. This evidence includes (a) the primary donor to P680 has been shown to be a redox-active tyrosyl residue (Tyr161) in the D1 protein, and (b) site-directed mutagenesis and computer-assisted modeling of the reaction center heterodimer have suggested several sites with a possible function in manganese ligation. These include Asp170, Gln165 and Gln189 of the D1 protein and Glu69 of the D2 protein as well as the C-terminal portion of the mature D1 protein. Also, hydrophilic loops of the chlorophyll-binding protein CP43 that are exposed at the inner thylakoid surface could be essential for the water-splitting process. In photosynthetic eukaryotes, three lumenal extrinsic proteins, PS II-O (33 kDa), PS II-P (23 kDa) and PS II-Q (16 kDa), influence the properties of the manganese cluster without being involved in the actual catalysis of water oxidation. The extrinsic proteins together may have multiple binding sites to the integral portion of PS II, which could be provided by the D1/D2 heterodimer and CP47. A major role for the PS II-O protein is to stabilize the manganese cluster. Most experimental evidence favors a connection of the PS II-P protein with binding of the Cl- and Ca2+ ions required for the water oxidation, while the PS II-Q protein seems to be associated only with the Cl- requirement. The two latter proteins are not present in PS II of prokaryotic organisms, where their functions may be replaced by a 10-12 kDa subunit and a newly discovered low-potential cytochrome c-550.
THE CHLOROPHYLL-CAROTENOID PROTEINS OF OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Moroney JV and Somanchi A (1999) How do algae concentrate CO2 to increase the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon fixation? Plant Physiology 119: 9–16.
The proteins it
needs for photosynthesis, UV protection and nitrogen assimilation whilst nourishing itself in the day also
undergo a daily cycle as more of these proteins are synthesised during the daytime.
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At the center of photosynthesis is a class of proteins termed ..
The standard method for determining light requirements for corals' zooxanthellae has been examination of absorption characteristics of photopigments such as chlorophyll , chlorophyll etc. (good) or action spectrums (better). Both are not without problems. Absorption characteristics are usually based on pigments extracted in solvents. Spectral characteristics shift slightly according to the extraction solvent used, and photopigments, when combined, also change these characteristics slightly. A better way is to examine the action spectrum of zooxanthellae isolated from a stony coral. This is usually done with a monochromator, where a beam of pure color (hue) illuminates a culture of dinoflagellates and a reaction is determined (such as oxygen evolution). A chart of wavelengths versus reaction is then made. See Figure 1. This method also suffers from deficiencies - the two Photosystems (I and II) absorb light wavelengths with difference efficiencies, hence a monochromator might stimulate one photosystem, but not the other, and photosynthesis might not proceed efficiently (although 'spill-over' - also called State Transitions 1 or 2 - could perhaps overcome this problem - something very much in the discovery phase for zooxanthellae.) See Kirk (2000) for further details on action spectrums.
Photosynthesis Electron Transport Chain Diagram Nail Lifestyle
Yield: The amount of product produced (such as photosynthesis) by the interaction of two substances (such as light and chlorophyll), generally expressed as a percentage. Zooxanthellae typically have a Yield of 0.30 - 0.40, while terrestrial plants' Yields are much higher (~0.80.)
Photosynthesis And Respiration Steps
The following charts demonstrate the rate of photosynthesis - the relative electron transport rate (rETR) - in a coral when illuminated by various LED light sources described above. Other energy dissipation pathways (NPQ and NO) are shown as well. See the Glossary (above) for definitions and the Methods and Materials (below) for further information. See Figures 19 - 24.
Electron Transport Chain Photosynthesis Simple
State Transition: A redistribution of collected light energy from one photosystem to another, thus allowing photosynthesis to occur in an efficient manner. Redistribution is known to occur in some zooxanthellae clades, usually from Photosystem II to Photosystem I, and prevents a damaging traffic jam of electrons. State Transition is also known as 'spill-over.'
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