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protein synthesis and muscle growth after a ..

It's been shown conclusively in the literature that insulin signaling isn't needed to turn on training-induced protein synthesis – just leucine is required, which suggests that carbs aren't important.

Training has a bigger effect; protein synthesis is ramped up for 24 hours in trained people.

You can see how this works in the figure below. Without a training stimulus, muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown cancel each other out.

Aside from being crucial for muscle protein synthesis and ..

Naturally, if insulin is able to extend or amplify the post-workout burst in protein synthesis, .

16. Glynn EL, Fry CS, Drummond MJ, et al. Muscle protein breakdown has a minor role in the protein anabolic response to essential amino acid and carbohydrate intake following resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299(2):R533-R540.

14. Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):161-168.

for 7 days increases both leucine protein synthesis and ..

Don't forget about pre-workout nutrition. It keeps the protein synthesis machinery from getting turned off during the workout.

The whole process of cellular damage and subsequent overcompensation (the cells grow back a little bigger than they were before) can take anywhere in the neighbourhood of several hours to several days, depending on the severity and type of training. Trained individuals, however, have been shown, in several studies, to complete the protein synthesis cycle within 36-48 hours after intense 'conventional' Bodybuilding-type weight training. This is strong evidence to support the idea that muscles should be trained every 48 hours. But there are more things to consider, and that's what we'll do in articles on the 'Training Related Articles' page.

Now factors that promote protein synthesis such as IGF-1, growth hormone (GH), testosterone and some prostaglandins can commence the growth process. Protein synthesis occurs because a genetically-coded subtsance called 'messenger RNA' (mRNA) is sent out from the nucleus to the ribosomes. The nucleus is believed to release increased mRNA in response to tension and/or myofibrillar damage done as a result of insufficient cycling of actin-myosin cross-bridges during intense muscular contractions, though this mechanism is not fully understood. The mRNA contains the 'instructions' for the ribosomes to synthesize proteins, and so the process of constructing contractile (actin and myosin) and structural proteins (for the other components of the cell) from the amino acids taken into the cell from the bloodstream is set off. Several substances can influence this process. A short overview of the major ones are found below:

This leads to a stimulation of the anabolic process in protein metabolism, which in turn leads to a positive nitrogen balance in the body.
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lead to improvements in skeletal muscle protein synthesis, ..

To repair and build muscle, athletes must refuel with high-protein foods immediately following exercise, especially after resistance training. They should consume 20 to 40 g of protein that includes 3 to 4 g of leucine per serving to increase muscle protein synthesis.13 While research has shown 20 g of whole egg protein can stimulate muscle protein synthesis in young, healthy men, the literature suggests that higher amounts are necessary in athletes over the age of 71 and possibly at younger ages, although this hasn’t been fully determined.14

enhance anabolic signaling or protein synthesis

In addition, there are other intracellular bodies whose growth and/or proliferation would fall under the category of sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. These would be organelles such as the ribosomes, which are involved in protein synthesis. As in the case of neural drive machinery, in most cases they would increase in size or number only to support sarcomere hypertrophy. They would have little impact on overall muscle size.

increases muscle protein synthesis ..

In addition, whey is an optimal postworkout protein because of its amino acid composition and the speed of amino acid release into the bloodstream. And while it’s crucial to replenish the body with protein and amino acids immediately after exercise, athletes need to eat protein regularly throughout each day to stimulate whole-body protein synthesis until muscle failure sensitizes muscle tissue to protein for up to 48 hours after exercise.15

Maximize Protein Synthesis | T Nation

The post-workout meal is the most important for amping up protein synthesis after a workout. Muscle cells are primed for protein synthesis in the hours after training, but only if the right nutrition is there.

Effect of Insulin on Protein Synthesis | Diabetes

Some researchers have speculated that the real effect of anabolicsteroids is the creation of a "psychosomatic state" characterized bysensations of well being, euphoria, increased aggressiveness andtolerance to stress, allowing the athlete to train harder. Such apsychosomatic state would be more beneficial to experienced weightlifters who have developed the motor skills to exert maximal forceduring strength training. Diets high in protein and calories may alsobe important in maximizing the effectiveness of anabolic steroids.

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