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A large group or block (aggregate) of consumers joined together to leverage their combined purchasing power when negotiating rates for energy services.
High-Pressure Tube Trailers: Transporting compressed hydrogen gas by truck, railcar, ship, or barge in high-pressure tube trailers is expensive and used primarily for distances of 200 miles or less.
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Pipeline: This least-expensive way to deliver large volumes of hydrogen is limited—because there is only about 700 miles of U.S. pipelines for hydrogen delivery currently available. These pipelines are located near large petroleum refineries and chemical plants in Illinois, California, and the Gulf Coast.
Liquefied Hydrogen Tankers: Cryogenic liquefaction is a process that cools the hydrogen to a temperature where it becomes a liquid. Although the liquefaction process is expensive, it enables hydrogen to be transported more efficiently (when compared with using high-pressure tube trailers) over longer distances by truck, railcar, ship, or barge. If the liquefied hydrogen is not used at a sufficiently high rate at the point of consumption, it boils off (or evaporates) from its containment vessels. This fact requires that the hydrogen delivery and consumption rates are carefully matched.
There are a number of ways to produce hydrogen:
Creating an infrastructure for to thousands of future individual fueling stations presents many challenges. Because hydrogen contains less energy per unit volume than all other fuels, transporting, storing, and delivering it to the point of end-use is more expensive on a per gasoline gallon equivalent (per-GGE) basis. Building a new hydrogen pipeline network involves high initial capital costs, and hydrogen's properties present unique challenges to pipeline materials and compressor design. However, because hydrogen can be produced from a wide variety of resources, regional or even local hydrogen production can maximize use of local resources and minimize distribution challenges.
There are tradeoffs between to consider. Producing hydrogen centrally in large plants cuts production costs but boosts distribution costs. Producing hydrogen at the point of end-use—at fueling stations, for example—cuts distribution costs but increases production costs because of the cost to construct on-site production capabilities.
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Most hydrogen used in the United States is produced at or close to where it is used—typically at large industrial sites. The infrastructure needed for distributing hydrogen to the nationwide network of required for the widespread use of still needs to be developed. The initial rollout for vehicles and stations focuses on building out these distribution networks, primarily in southern and northern California.
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The lowest temperature at which a flammable gas vapor will ignite spontaneously, without a source of ignition, after several minutes of exposure to sources of heat.
A number of hydrogen production methods are in development:
In an electric drive vehicle, the auxiliary battery provides electricity to start the car before the traction battery is engaged and also powers vehicle accessories.
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The primary challenge for hydrogen production is reducing the cost of production technologies to make the resulting hydrogen cost competitive with conventional transportation fuels. Government and industry projects are reducing the cost as well as the environmental impacts of hydrogen production technologies. Learn more about hydrogen production from the and the .
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Government and industry projects are overcoming the barriers to efficient hydrogen distribution. Learn more about hydrogen distribution from the .
Currently, hydrogen is distributed through three methods:
Using enzymes and catalysts to change biological substances chemically to produce energy products. An example is digestion of organic wastes or sewage by microorganisms to produce methane.
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