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Acetone | Definition of Acetone by Merriam-Webster
b) Comparative studies on the kinetics of cyanide formation from acetonitrile, as well as of conjugation to thiocyanate and its elimination, should be conducted.
Some chemical properties of other cyanides are given in Table 2. Copper cyanide is a white to cream-coloured solid. Its common name is cuprous cyanide, and its synonym is cupricin. Potassium silver cyanide occurs as white crystals; its common synonym is potassium dicyanoargentate. It is sensitive to light. Sodium ferrocyanide decomposes at 435 °C, forming sodium cyanide.
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Urinary acetonitrile was detectable for 4 days after dosing, whereas free and combined cyanide were detectable until 11 days, at which time the animals were sacrificed.
They all suggested a metabolic pathway in which acetonitrile is bio-transformed by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system initially to cyanohydrin, which then spontaneously decomposes to hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde as shown in Fig.
Imine Formation - California State University, …
This CICAD on hydrogen cyanide and cyanides (human health aspects) was prepared by Prof. Fina Petrova Simeonova and Dr Lawrence Fishbein, based principally on the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry toxicological profile for cyanide (ATSDR, 1997) and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives document on cyanogenic glycosides (JECFA, 1993). The source documents and a description of their review processes are presented in Appendix 1. A comprehensive literature search of several online databases was performed in October 2002 to identify any relevant references published subsequent to those cited in the source documents. This CICAD was first discussed at the 10th Final Review Board meeting, held in Monks Wood, United Kingdom, on 16–19 September 2002. Following revision, it was discussed again and approved as an international assessment at the 11th Final Review Board meeting, held in Varna, Bulgaria, on 8–11 September 2003. Participants at the 10th and 11th Final Review Board meetings are listed in Appendices 2 and 3. The drafts discussed at these meetings were peer reviewed before the meetings; information on the peer review process is presented in Appendix 4. The International Chemical Safety Cards on hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, potassium cyanide, calcium cyanide, cyanogen, cyanogen chloride, acetone cyanohydrin, and potassium ferricyanide, produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS, 1999a,b, 2000b, 2001, 2002a,b,c,d), have also been reproduced in this document.
IDENTITY, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, AND ANALYTICAL METHODS Chemical formula: CH3CN Chemical structure: Relative molecular mass: 41.05 CAS chemical name: acetonitrile CAS registry number: Synonyms: cyanomethane, ethanenitrile, nitrile of acetic acid, methyl cyanide, ethyl nitrile, methanecarbonitrile Specifications for commercial acetonitrile are given in Table 1.
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There is a biological example of this reaction
However, the rate of acetonitrile biotransformation into cyanide by liver microsomal preparation obtained from cobalt-heme-treated rats was 13% of controls, while the total cytochrome P-450 content was reduced by only 41% compared to the controls.
Chemical Process and Design Handbook - …
Occupational exposure limits for various countriesa Country TWA STEL (ppm) (mg/m3) (ppm) (mg/m3) Australia 40 70 60 105 Belgium 40 67 60 101 Denmark 40 70 - - Finland 40 70 60 105 France 40 70 - - Germany 40 70 - - Hungary - 50 - 100 Switzerland 40 70 80 140 United Kingdom 40 70 60 105 USA (ACGIH) 40 67 60 101 (NIOSH/OSHA) 40 70 60 101 USSR - - - 10 a From: ILO (1991) After a nationwide survey in Japan of organic solvent components in various solvent products, acetonitrile was not detected in either thinners (321 samples) or miscellaneous solvents (56 samples), but was detected in 1% of the degreasers (145 samples) (Inoue et al., 1983).
Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanides: Human Health …
188.8.131.52 Effect on skin The skin irritation of acetonitrile in Sherman rats was reported by Smyth & Carpenter (1948) to be comparable to that of acetone, although no precise description of the technique used for testing skin irritation was provided.
nerol 106-25-2 - The Good Scents Company
Main use patterns of acetonitrilea Extraction of fatty acids and animal and vegetable oils Extraction of unsaturated petroleum hydrocarbons Solvent for polymer spinning and casting Moulding of plastics Removal of tars, phenols and colouring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons Purification of wool resin Recrystallization of steroids Starting material for synthesis of chemicals Solvent in DNA synthesis and peptide sequencing Medium for promoting reactions Solvent in non-aqueous titrations Non-aqueous solvent for inorganic salts High-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis Catalyst and component of transition-metal complex catalysts Extraction and refining of copper Stabilizer for chlorinated solvents Perfume manufacture Pharmaceutical solvents a From: Veatch et al.
nerol is cis isomer of geraniol; used in perfumery
These are based on the slow toxicokinetics of acetonitrile due to the slower rate of formation of free cyanide from acetonitrile compared with other nitriles.
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