Call us toll-free

Quick academic help

Don't let the stress of school get you down! Have your essay written by a professional writer before the deadline arrives.

Calculate the price

Pages:

275 Words

$19,50

Ethylene and fruit ripening: from illumination gas to …

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) are compounds that inhibit the synthesis of ethylene within the fruit. Pre-harvest applications of these chemicals enable fruit to reach greater maturity and colour development on the tree prior to harvest. They do this by inhibiting the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase enzyme. ACC synthase is thought to be the rate-limiting step in fruit for the production of internal ethylene - ACC being the precursor molecule to ethylene in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway.

Fruit ripening gas - ethylene - Frontline Services

Control of ethylene biosynthesis has been observed at the level of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities and includes an important aspect of autoregulation (7, 8). In most cases, the ethylene levels are directly correlated with the ACC synthase activity, which is known to be highly regulated during plant development and in response to a complex array of environmental stimuli (9). Data have accumulated, however, that also indicate the importance of ACC oxidase for the regulation of ethylene synthesis (7). The synthesis of ACC does not always translate immediately into ethylene production. Interestingly, ACC is a soluble and translocatable hormone precursor, in contrast to ethylene, which, as a gas, is most probably not suited for targeted translocation processes. Translocation of ACC as a mechanism of interorgan signaling has been proposed for the regulation of plant responses to flooding stress (10, 11).

Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals …

Mechanisms and applications of plant growth …

N2 - The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure that changes in response to developmental and environmental cues through poorly understood signaling pathways. We identified two Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana that play a role in regulating cell wall function. Mutations in these FEI1 and FEI2 genes (named for the Chinese word for fat) disrupt anisotropic expansion and the synthesis of cell wall polymers and act additively with inhibitors or mutations disrupting cellulose biosynthesis. While FEI1 is an active protein kinase, a kinase-inactive version of FEI1 was able to fully complement the feil fei2 mutant. The expansion defect in feil fei2 roots was suppressed by inhibition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, an enzyme that converts Ado-Met to ACC in ethylene biosynthesis, but not by disruption of the ethylene response pathway. Furthermore, the FEI proteins interact directly with ACC synthase. These results suggest that the FEI proteins define a novel signaling pathway that regulates cell wall function, likely via an ACC-mediated signal.

The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure that changes in response to developmental and environmental cues through poorly understood signaling pathways. We identified two Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana that play a role in regulating cell wall function. Mutations in these FEI1 and FEI2 genes (named for the Chinese word for fat) disrupt anisotropic expansion and the synthesis of cell wall polymers and act additively with inhibitors or mutations disrupting cellulose biosynthesis. While FEI1 is an active protein kinase, a kinase-inactive version of FEI1 was able to fully complement the feil fei2 mutant. The expansion defect in feil fei2 roots was suppressed by inhibition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, an enzyme that converts Ado-Met to ACC in ethylene biosynthesis, but not by disruption of the ethylene response pathway. Furthermore, the FEI proteins interact directly with ACC synthase. These results suggest that the FEI proteins define a novel signaling pathway that regulates cell wall function, likely via an ACC-mediated signal.

Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (ACS)

Publications - Official Portal of Malaysian Rubber Board

Delayed fruit ripening

The gas hormone, ethylene regulates the ripening of fruits, therefore, ripening can be slowed down by blocking or reducing ethylene production. This can be achieved by introducing ethylene forming gene(s) in a way that will suppress its own expression in the crop plant. Such fruits ripen very slowly (however, they can be ripen by ethylene application) and this helps in exporting the fruits to longer distances without spoilage due to longer-shelf life.
The most common example is the 'Flavr Savr' transgenic tomatoes, which were commercialized in U.S.A in 1994. The main strategy used was the antisense RNA approach. In the normal tomato plant, the PG gene (for the enzyme polygalacturonase) encodes a normal mRNA that produces the enzyme polygalacturonase which is involved in the fruit ripening. The complimentary DNA of PG encodes for antisense mRNA, which is complimentary to normal (sense) mRNA. The hybridization between the sense and antisnse mRNAs renders the sense mRNA ineffective. Consequently, polygalacturonase is not produced causing delay in the fruit ripening. Similarly strategies have been developed to block the ethylene biosynthesis thereby reducing the fruit ripening. E.g. transgenic plants with antisense gene of ACC oxidase (an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic process of ethylene) have been developed. In these plants, production of ethylene was reduced by about 97% with a significant delay in the fruit ripening.
The bacterial gene encoding ACC deaminase (an enzyme that acts on ACC and removes amino group) has been transferred and expressed in tomato plants which showed 90% inhibition in the ethylene biosynthesis.

Figure 1. The ethylene biosynthesis pathway in higher plants. ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; GACC, glutamyl-ACC; MACC, malonyl-ACC; MTA, 5′-methylthio-adenosine; SAM, S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

Order now
  • UNMATCHED QUALITY

    As soon as we have completed your work, it will be proofread and given a thorough scan for plagiarism.

  • STRICT PRIVACY

    Our clients' personal information is kept confidential, so rest assured that no one will find out about our cooperation.

  • COMPLETE ORIGINALITY

    We write everything from scratch. You'll be sure to receive a plagiarism-free paper every time you place an order.

  • ON-TIME DELIVERY

    We will complete your paper on time, giving you total peace of mind with every assignment you entrust us with.

  • FREE CORRECTIONS

    Want something changed in your paper? Request as many revisions as you want until you're completely satisfied with the outcome.

  • 24/7 SUPPORT

    We're always here to help you solve any possible issue. Feel free to give us a call or write a message in chat.

Order now

ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering (ACS …

AB - The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure that changes in response to developmental and environmental cues through poorly understood signaling pathways. We identified two Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana that play a role in regulating cell wall function. Mutations in these FEI1 and FEI2 genes (named for the Chinese word for fat) disrupt anisotropic expansion and the synthesis of cell wall polymers and act additively with inhibitors or mutations disrupting cellulose biosynthesis. While FEI1 is an active protein kinase, a kinase-inactive version of FEI1 was able to fully complement the feil fei2 mutant. The expansion defect in feil fei2 roots was suppressed by inhibition of 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase, an enzyme that converts Ado-Met to ACC in ethylene biosynthesis, but not by disruption of the ethylene response pathway. Furthermore, the FEI proteins interact directly with ACC synthase. These results suggest that the FEI proteins define a novel signaling pathway that regulates cell wall function, likely via an ACC-mediated signal.

COMPOSITAE - University of California, Davis

The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is involved in many plant processes including germination, leaf and flower abcission, cell elongation and inhibition, plant defense and fruit ripening. Ethylene synthesis can be altered in response to stimuli to effect these plant processes and the fitness of a plant in its environment. Although there are several points in ethylene biosynthesis that can be regulated under differing conditions, one of the key components in ethylene output is the stability of ACC synthase (ACS) protein, which tends to correlate positively with ethylene production. In Arabidopsis, there are nine ACS proteins that fall into three groups based on sequence homology specifically of the C-terminal region. My research focuses on Type-2 ACS proteins, which have an intermediate length C-terminal region with a putative CDPK phosphorylation site. Both application of cytokinin and mutations found in the C-terminal region of the Type-2 ACS proteins result in an increase in protein stability and an increase in ethylene synthesis. To more fully understand ethylene biosynthesis regulation, I have investigated several different aspects of ACS protein stability. The three main areas studied include the effect other phytohormones in ACS protein stability, the interaction E3 ligase components with ACS proteins and their effect on ethylene production, and identification of possible novel interactors and suppressors of ACS protein stability. The phytohormone work shows that brassinosteroid stabilizes multiple ACS proteins and that the stabilization is C-terminus-dependent. I also showed that cytokinin-induced ACS stability requires functional AHK, AHP and the type-B ARR1 and this stabilization occurs by a non-C-terminal dependent mechanism. The second aspect of my work showed that the BTB-adaptor proteins, ETO1 and EOL1 were specific to type-2 ACS in Arabidopsis, and the level of ethylene synthesis is shown to be most increased by elimination of ETO1, then EOL2 and finally EOL1. The last and most preliminary element of my reasearch is the identification of possible suppressors of an inducible myc-ACS5 overexpression transgenic plant line. These suppressors may be direct interactors and novel components in the ACS stability mechanism.

Order now
  • You submit your order instructions

  • We assign an appropriate expert

  • The expert takes care of your task

  • We send it to you upon completion

Order now
  • 37 684

    Delivered orders

  • 763

    Professional writers

  • 311

    Writers online

  • 4.8/5

    Average quality score

Order now
  • Kim

    "I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."

  • Paul

    "Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."

  • Ellen

    "Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."

  • Joyce

    "Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."

  • Albert

    "Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."

  • Mary

    "Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."

Ready to tackle your homework?

Place an order