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5,5-Diphenylhydantoin | 57-41-0

Zinc deficiency and thyroid hormone shortage occurring in both cretinism and myxedema have similar signs, ie. retarded growth, reduced appetite and activity, impaired development of skin and hair (Hartoma et al., 1979). Zinc deficiency symptoms may be mediated by excess glucocorticoids since Zn depletion results in elevation of glucocorticoids. Elevated glucocorticoids and Zn deficiency both result in death of thymic lymphocytes (Donovan and Thomas, 1980). A deficiency of nerve growth factor may occur with Zn deficiency. One nerve growth factor is a small basic protein with three distinct types of sub-units (Vinores and Guroff, 1980). Two molecules of Zn are present in the complex and Zn participates in holding the structure together (Dunn et al., 1980; Pattison and Dunn, 1975). In the absence of Zn the subunits separate. Nerve growth factor is required for the survival and development of certain sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is equally clear that nerve growth factor affects a wide variety of other cells as well. Nerve growth factors are present on the plasma membrane and almost certainly at the synaptic ending as well (Dunn et al., 1980). Nerve growth factor action increased dendritic attachments which requires elevated levels of RNA synthesis, which is Zn dependant.

Dilantin?Preparation of Phenytoin Derivatives under…of synthesis of these compounds.
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Furthermore, chemicals that are metabolized to DNA-damaging intermediates may be detected in vivo by measuring the alkaline elution of isolated kidney nuclei (Omichinski et al., 1987; Brunborg et al., 1988) or unscheduled DNA synthesis in isolated kidney cells (Tyson & Mirsalis, 1985) after in vivo exposure of animals.

-5,5-diphenylhydantoin and 3 ..

Vasiliades J, Sahawneh T: Effect of Diphenylhydantonin on Serum Copper, Zinc, and Magnesium. Clin. Chem. 21, 637, 1975.
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Excess copper is the primary imbalance of histapenics. The Cu comes from the drinking water, food, and “vitamins plus minerals,” which are overloaded with 2 mg of copper. Diphenylhydantoin (DPH) elevated copper levels (Vasiliades and Sahawneh, 1975). High Cu levels antagonize folic acid through a complex web of trace metal interactions. Pregnant women and young women on the birth control pill will have abnormally low blood histamine levels because of the high estrogen levels. Copper levels also rise with the increase in estrogens. High copper levels increase the activity of histaminase (diaminoxidase), which is a copper-containing enzyme (Jensen and Olesen, 1969; Jonassen, 1976; Torok, 1970). Vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs show progressive rises in serum copper levels.

Small amounts of zinc 5X10-6 M stimulate rapid axonal transport of proteins in an in vitro system using frog ganglia and nerve (Edstrom and Mattsson, 1975). Zinc probably stimulates axonal transport by stabilizing rat brain microtubules and ribosomes (Edstrorn and Mattsson, 1975). Zinc, at concentration of 5X10-6 increased synthesis to 140 percent of the control and protein transport to 175 percent of the control value. In certain concentrations, Zn appears to be important for both protein synthesis and axoplasmic flow. Metal chelation of Zn causes nerve degeneration, while Zn toxicity causes fast axonal transport resulting in a distal concentration of membrane protein which may proceed to defective maintenance of axon terminal structures and loss of function.

5,5-Diphenylhydantoin CAS#: 57-41-0

Synthesis of Phenytoin .
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The stoichiometric amount of ammonium acetate in the preparation of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles is two. We can prepare 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles using two equivalents of ammonium acetate but we observed in our experiment and other published papers, if we use inexpensive and available ammonium acetate having more than two equivalents, the reaction will show better results. Thus, a slight excess of the ammonium acetate was found to be advantageous and hence the molar ratio of benzil to ammonium acetate was kept at 1:4. The efficiency and versatility of the ionic liquid as a catalyst for the preparation of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles were demonstrated by the wide range of substituted and structurally diverse aldehydes to synthesize the corresponding products in high to excellent yields ().

2,4,5-Trisubstituted imidazole was prepared in quantitative yield by condensing benzyl (10mmol), ammonium acetate with benzaldehyde derivatives (10mmol), in the presence of brønsted ionic liquid diethylammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.513g, 3mmol), as a catalyst in solvent free condition at 100°C.

(1985) Measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat kidney cells following in vivo treatment with genotoxic agents.
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Dilantin, 5,5-Diphenylhydantoin, Phenytoin ..

Rampe D, Ferrante J, & Triggle DJ (1987) The actions of diazepam and diphenylhydantoin on fast and slow Ca2+ uptake in the guinea pig cerebral cortex synaptosome. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 68: 538-543.

5,5-Diphenylhydantoin (CAS: 57-41-0)

A DP prostanoid receptor antagonist BWA868C or 3-benzyl-5-(6-carboxyhexyl)-1-(2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-ethyl-amino)hydantoin (102) has been synthesised with tritium labelling in the cyclohexyl group () and then used for characterisation and autoradiographic localisation of DP receptors in a range of mammalian tissues and cells and to better define the distribution and possible functions of DP receptors in the mammalian body []. This includes localisation of DP receptors in the human eye () [].

5,5-Diphenylhydantoin, 99+%, ACROS …

Figure 17. Syntheses of 14C-labelled mephenytoin (98) (Scheme 28) and d8-spiromustine (101) (Scheme 29), structures of a tritium labelled DP prostanoid receptor antagonist BWA868C (102) and 15N3-labelled N1-(β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-5-guanidinohydantoin (103) and syntheses of an 11C-labelled nonsteroidal androgen receptor ligand (105) (Scheme 30) and a 14C-labelled matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor ABT-770 (107) (Scheme 31).

5,5-DIPHENYLHYDANTOIN, CAS Number: 57-41-0

Figure 16. 18O-labelled hydantoins. Synthesis of guanidinohydantoin with 13C, 15N and 18O labels (96) (Scheme 27) and structures of 18O-labelled spirodihydantoin (74b), spiroiminohydantoin (97), allantoin (2b) and guanidinohydantoin (96).

5,5-Diphenylhydantoin, 99+%, ACROS Organics 100g; …

Gogerty JH, Griot RG, Habeck D, Iorio LC, & Houlihan WJ (1977) Synthesis and central nervous system evaluation of some 6-alkoxy-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2(IH)-ones. J Med Chem, 20: 952-956.

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