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Bartoli indole synthesis - Wikipedia
Finally, a number of studies among particular groups (clubbers, internet users, etc.) with non-probabilistic samples have generally identified higher levels of synthetic cannabinoid use than among the general population. The 2012 Global Drug Survey, for example, reported last year prevalence levels of 3.3 % among all UK respondents (not representative of the general population) and 5.0 % among UK regular clubbers (18).
The adverse health effects associated with synthetic cannabinoids are linked to both the intrinsic properties of the substances, what the body does to the substances, and to the way the products are produced. There has been a large number of non-fatal poisonings, and a smaller number of deaths are associated with their use (19,20). As some of these compounds are very potent, the potential for toxic effects appears to be high. These risks may be added to by the manufacturing process, which can lead to an uneven distribution of the substances within the plant material. This may result in some products containing ‘hot pockets’ where the cannabinoid is highly concentrated, leading to doses that are higher than intended and increasing the risk of serious adverse events (21,22). It is also possible that some of the adverse effects are due to mechanisms other than interaction with the cannabinoid receptors, for example by interfering with other physiological functions in the body (23).
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The letter codes used are based not only on the letter used but also on the ordering of letters. For example, A identifies the amine in the linked group; CA identifies the carboxamide. By following the syntax and codes described, synthetic cannabinoids that follow this structure will have a unique short name.
In an attempt to make the chemistry of the synthetic cannabinoids more readily understandable, a model is presented here to help explain the chemical make-up of these compounds. The synthetic cannabinoids are chemically diverse, what they share is their ability to bind to the cannabinoid receptors. However, the structure of the majority of synthetic cannabinoids can be broken down into four key parts: the core and substituents, the link section, the ring and substituents, and the tail section. If you select the right combination of component molecules, a synthetic cannabinoid will appear.
Hint: click on a molecule again to 'toggle' its selection state.
CHEMICALS & REAGENTS of UNITED QUANTUM …
Synthetic cannabinoids play an important role in the rapidly evolving ‘legal highs’ market. ‘Legal highs’ is an umbrella term used to describe non-regulated (new) psychoactive substances that are usually intended to mimic the effects of controlled drugs and are sold on the open market. This is an area characterised by limited data on use, with the risks and harms largely unknown, and where highly potent drugs are of serious concern. In the case of smoking mixtures containing synthetic cannabinoids, for example, there can be considerable variability both within and between different batches of the products, in terms of both the substances and the amount present.
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