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two-hit hypothesis for psychiatric ..

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Schizophrenia two-hit hypothesis in …

However, there is also a counterargument which claims that the onset of depression cannot be explained by the monoamine hypothesis: There is no relationship between depression symptoms and changes in the amount of monoamine metabolites in blood and urine. In addition, tricyclic antidepressants immediately cause an increase in levels of monoamines but yield no antidepressant effects unless administered for two weeks or longer []. In addition, not all patients who use reserpine develop depression.

We present a ‘two-hit’ hypothesis, ..

the basis of the "two hit hypothesis".

When stress levels rise, integration of subsystems of defense may be compromised as well, yielding secondary structural dissociation, i.e., division of the EP. We hypothesize that this condition marks complex PTSD or DESNOS (Herman, 1992; Pelcovitz et al, 1997), and DDNOS (APA, 1994). In cases of extreme traumatization, even the integration of systems dedicated to managing daily life and to survival of the species may be beyond reach, yielding tertiary structural dissociation. Table 1 summarizes the forms of structural dissociation that trauma may provoke.

Persistence of structural dissociation is an essential feature of trauma-related disorders that range from PTSD to DID. Since living organisms have a natural tendency toward differentiation and integration (Siegel, 1999), we must ask what maintains dissociation when trauma has ceased. In our theoretical view, integrative failure in the aftermath of trauma partly involves effects of Pavlovian, or classical, conditioning, a hypothesis we have begun to explore in quasi-experimental research.

Missing The Diagnosis: The Hidden Medical Causes of …

two hit hypothesis, ..

Daum C, Gheorghita F, Spatola M, Stojanova V, et al. Interobserver agreement and validity of bedside 'positive signs' for functional weakness, sensory and gait disorders in conversion disorder: a pilot study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;86(4):425-30.

Out of our 30,000 genes, only two percent of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) codes for proteins. Until very recently, much of our DNA was considered to be what researchers call. These genes were considered to be the byproduct of millions of years of evolution – genes were still inherited but were no longer used. Recently, however, scientists have discovered that some of this junk DNA actually switches on RNA that interacts with other genes.

Two-hit hypothesis
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Serum B12 & Neuropsychiatric (Febuary 2011) …

We have presented a body of empirical and experimental data that support, or that are at least consistent with, the proposed theory. At a minimum it can be said that the basic distinction between ANP and EP serves heuristic functions in the study of trauma-related mental disorders. For example, the theory predicts testable neuroendocrine differences between both psychobiological systems, such as more prominent norepinephrine levels in EPs (to the extent that they involve activation of the sympathetic nervous system) compared to ANPs upon exposure to (perceived) threat. Another example of the heuristic function of the theory relates to the differential responses of ANPs and EPs to trauma memories and masked angry facial expression, as well as their different cortisol levels. Findings suggest that the processing of (perceived) threat by these dissociative parts of the personality diverges from the very early stages of information processing onward; this hypothesis can be tested using functional MRI. In fact, we currently plan this study. If the hypothesis would be confirmed, the next major question to address is what process controls the rather fundamental reorganization of the brain and mind when the traumatized individual switches from one dissociative part of the personality to another, in particular with respect to alternations between ANP and EP.


The refusal to include the idea of spirits in a scientific world view, is, as Michael Harner points out, highly unscientific. A scientist does not reject any possibility out of hand without careful observation and experimentation. Yet this is just what the western scientific community has done to the idea of spirits playing any role in mental health dysfunction. It is possible that the practitioners working in the field of MPD may never suspect that they are working with an entity or spirit possession. And if this were pointed out to them, they would probably ridicule the idea. Unfortunately, I suspect that this is why some people suffering from the symptoms of MPD, which so strongly resembles spirit possession, are not always helped in any lasting way.

Substance Abuse Course | CEUfast Nursing Continuing …

It has been easy to discount the sometimes ineffectual interaction with the spirit world by those who did not understand what powers they are summoning. In this context, it has been easy for scientific westerners witnessing poorly-understood exorcisms to classify them by putting them in the rubbish bin. The understanding of these rituals has been cast aside along with myths and stories whose powers are equally poorly understood by the western mind. William James, in his famous Lowell Lectures of 1896, spoke about the nature of possession and its perception by various cultures throughout the ages. He underlines the negative prejudice surrounding it in the scientific circles of his time, which persist to this day:

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