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The same amino acid can be carried by different tRNA'S.

Yang W, Xia Y, Hawke D, Li X, Liang J,Xing D, Aldape K, Hunter T, Yung Alfred WK and Lu Z: PKM2phosphorylates histone H3 and promotes gene transcription andtumorigenesis. Cell. 150:685–696. 2012. : :

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Zhan C, Shi Y, Lu C and Wang Q: Pyruvatekinase M2 is highly correlated with the differentiation and theprognosis of esophageal squamous cell cancer. Dis Esophagus.26:746–753. 2013.

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Gui DY, Lewis CA and Van der Heiden MG:Allosteric regulation of PKM2 allows cellular adaptation todifferent physiological states. Sci Signal. 6:pe72013. : :

Keller KE, Doctor ZM, Dwyer ZW and Lee YS:SAICAR induces protein kinase activity of PKM2 that is necessaryfor sustained proliferative signaling of cancer cells. Mol Cell.53:700–709. 2014. : :

“Photofragment Imaging Fast Ion Beams”

Most Distinguished Teaching Award winning faculty of any department at UMass

“The twist in the story is that we thought that the distance between the lights in the string was the most important. It is important, but what is more important is the way that multiple strings and their lights are carefully arranged. It turns out that the processing solvent we used acts to arrange and regulate the architecture, so the azobenzene molecules attached to the polymer are arranged very neatly and compactly. It basically acts to ensure that there can be maximum packing density.” says Venkataraman. Details appear in the current issue of .

In the 1920s, Warburg observed that cancer cells hada distinct metabolism that was highly dependent on glycolysisinstead of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, regardless ofoxygen availability (). This processwas termed the Warburg effect, or aerobic glycolysis (). Hanahan and Weinberg () also revealed that reprogramming energymetabolism was one of the most common characteristics of cancercells. Compared with oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis is aless efficient pathway for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP)(). To compensate for the loss ofATP due to preferential glycolysis, cancer cells upregulate genesthat encode glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes, whichleads to glucose uptake and an altered metabolism (). Increased glucose uptake is used in theclinic for the detection of tumors using fluorodeoxyglucosepositron emission tomography (). Themetabolic reprogramming of cancer cells provides ATP and allowscells to survive under hypoxic conditions (). In addition, metabolic reprogrammingprovides cells with biosynthetic building blocks, includingintermediates and substrates for the synthesis of nucleotides,proteins and membrane components, which are required inproliferating cells ().

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“Multiple exciton generation in isolated organic molecules”

Wang Z, Chatterjee D, Jeon HY, Akerman M,Van der Heiden MG, Cantley LC and Krainer AR: Exon-centricregulation of pyruvate kinase M alternative splicing via mutuallyexclusive exons. J Mol Cell Biol. 4:79–87. 2012. : :

pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2

David CJ, Chen M, Assanah M, Canoll P andManley JL: HnRNP proteins controlled by c-Myc deregulate pyruvatekinase mRNA splicing in cancer. Nature. 463:364–368. 2010. : :

epidermal growth factor receptor

DeBerardinis RJ, Lum JJ, Hatzivassiliou Gand Thompson CB: The biology of cancer: Metabolic reprogrammingfuels cell growth and proliferation. Cell Metab. 7:11–20. 2008. : :

nuclear factor κ enhancer bindingprotein

Christofk HR, Van der Heiden MG, HarrisMH, Ramanathan A, Gerszten RE, Wei R, Fleming MD, Schreiber SL andCantley LC: The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase is importantfor cancer metabolism and tumour growth. Nature. 452:230–233. 2008. : :

2016 Impact Factor: Ranked (total number of cites)

Sun Q, Chen X, Ma J, Peng H, Wang F, ZhaX, Wang Y, Jing Y, Yang H, Chen R, et al: Mammalian target ofrapamycin up-regulation of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2 iscritical for aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth. Proc Natl AcadSci USA. 108:4129–4134. 2011. : :

Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Quiz - zeroBio

Noguchi T, Yamada K, Inoue H, Matsuda Tand Tanaka T: The L- and R-type isozymes of rat pyruvate kinase areproduced from a single gene by use of different promoters. J BiolChem. 262:14366–14371. 1987.

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Iqbal MA, Siddiqui FA, Gupta V,Chattopadhyay S, Gopinath P, Kumar B, Manvati S, Chaman N andBamezai RN: Insulin enhances metabolic capacities of cancer cellsby dual regulation of glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2. MolCancer. 12:722013. : :

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